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British North America. Consider This….

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consider this
Consider This…
  • Canada has successfully been invaded by Japan. Since the population in Japan is increasing, it has decided that Canada can provide the needed space for the millions of Japanese living in large, overcrowded cities. Canadians are outnumbered three-to-one across the country. The Japanese decide to rename the country Japanda and will soon form the new government. Canadians are outraged but feel extremely intimidated.
do these canadians have any rights should they be involved in forming the new government
Do these Canadians have any rights? Should they be involved in forming the new government?

No, because…

If you lose…you should lose

Highly expensive to accommodate a separate culture.

Cultures will clash violently.

  • Yes, because…
  • Human rights are undeniable?
  • If you repress a larger population, they eventually will rebel?
  • Fusing of two cultures creates a new and better one?
governing the peoples of bna
Governing the Peoples of BNA
  • War in N.A ends in 1760
    • as you know, Britain wins
  • France formally cedes Nouvelle France to the British in 1763 with the signing of the Treaty of Paris
  • In the meantime the former French colony has a military government led by James Murray (who had served under Wolfe)
initial british control
Initial British Control
  • Murray takes a different approach than was seen in Acadia
    • The population of New France is French speaking and Roman Catholic
    • While peace negations go on in Europe the citizens of Quebec are allowed to worship and live according to their custom
    • This was a practical approach as he had about 1500 British soldiers to patrol and control 70 000 Canadiens
new questions of loyalty
New Questions of Loyalty
  • Mistrust between British leaders and Quebec residents occurs in the early days of British rule
  • Who will the population support if war between Britain and France breaks out again?
    • Probably not Britain…
  • New France no longer exists on paper, but certainly still did in the hearts of many of the Canadiens
  • 150 years of history could not be erased by the results of the Seven Years War
  • Also, the Canadiens new very well what had happened in Acadia, and feared another expulsion
  • Church leaders and seigneurs feared a loss of power and influence
the aftermath of war
The Aftermath of War
  • The Seven Years War had left Britain in debt and New France’s economy in disarray
  • Quebec merchants were cut off from France and now had to develop contacts in Britain
  • Farms had been destroyed, and many seigneurs returned to France, however the majority of Canadiens do not have this choice
    • They could not afford to move to France
    • Many were born in North America- France was not their home
the b eginning of british influence in new france
The Beginning of British Influence in New France
  • Some British entrepreneurs move into Quebec hoping to profit
  • Some British military officials but land from departing seigneurs
  • The small British population assumed they would control France’s population and resources for their own benefit
the ohio valley and pontiac s resistance
The Ohio Valley and Pontiac’s Resistance
  • In addition to figuring out how to rule the population of New France, the British had another problem – How to deal with the First Nations ,living in the Ohio Valley
  • This area saw intense fighting during the Seven Years War
  • Despite this First Nations had not been a part of negotiations for the Treaty of Paris and the were not consulted about the future of their traditional lands
  • Some First Nations in the area had already been displaced from the areas were the thirteen colonies were established, and they were not inclined to move again
french influence in the ohio valley
French Influence in the Ohio Valley
  • The French had built many trading posts in the area
  • First Nations had been treated as independent, sovereign nations
  • Alliances had been maintained with gifts of guns, ammunition, and trade goods
  • These gifts were expected by First Nations in exchange for allowing the French to use their land
the new british approach in the ohio valley
The New British Approach in the Ohio Valley
  • After the fall of New France the British began to occupy French forts around the Great Lakes and in the Ohio Valley
    • General Jeffrey Amhurst oversaw the area
  • The British sought to control both the fur trade and the colonization of the area
  • Amhurst saw First Nations as conquered people and thus saw no reason to distribute costly gifts
  • Amhurst also only allowed those licensed by Britain to trade in the area
  • This caused hardship in many First Nations communities which had grown to rely on the fur trade and the system of gift distribution
  • Amhurst treated First Nations as a problem he did not want to deal with
    • British forces gave 2 blankets and a hankerchief that they knew were infected with smallpox to First Nations leaders
    • The disease then spread throughout the Ohio Valley
the influence of the thirteen colonies in the area
The Influence of the Thirteen Colonies in the Area
  • Residents of the Thirteen Colonies felt that they could settle the Ohio Valley after the fall of New France
  • Yankee land speculators ignore British attempts at controlling settlement and begin selling land to settlers who came to stake their claim
pontiac s resistance
Pontiac’s Resistance
  • Pontiac was an Odawa First Nation War Chief and had been an ally of the French on the Plains of Abraham
  • After the fall of New France attempts to build alliances with the British were not successful, and his people suffered under British rule
  • He led a united resistance of First Nations from the Ohio Valley, around the Great Lakes, and the Northwest
  • In 1763 the allied First Nations overtake 9 of the 12 British forts in the area to the north and west of the Thirteen Colonies
  • Peace negotiations begin in 1766
    • British were allowed to have their forts back in exchange for protected First Nations hunting grounds
    • Pontiac also affirmed the position that the French had only been using First Nations land, and their defeat did not mean the British took control of that land

1952 film poster

Monument in Pontiac Illinois

the royal proclamation of 1763
The Royal Proclamation of 1763
  • Pontiac’s resistance convinced the British that pacifying First Nations was a less costly alternative to war
  • The Proclamation created a clear boundary between British Colonies and land reserved for First Nations
    • The intent was to avoid conflicts, and ensure a slow, orderly settlement of the West
  • Under the Royal proclamation the British took control of treaty negations assuming that it was the role of Britain, not First Nations and Colonists to decide the time and place for negotiations
    • Another goal of the British in the process was to limit westward expansion, and force colonists to move north, thereby decreasing the Canadien majority and forcing assimilation into British colonial rule
the french under the royal proclamation
The French Under the Royal Proclamation
  • The Royal Proclamation officially establishes the province of Quebec and gave the French residents their first civil government since conquest
  • French laws were abolished
  • People had to take the Serment du Test to participate in government
    • This was an oath in which people swore that they were a part of the Anglican Church, therefore ensuring that Roman Catholics could not hold public office
  • The territory of Quebec was restricted to the St Lawrence Valley and those wishing to travel west had to apply for a permit from the new governor
responses to the royal proclamation
Responses to the Royal Proclamation
  • While the rights of First Nations to lands in the West were established, French speaking religious and landholding elites felt threatened
  • The previous French laws protecting their positions were gone
  • A major goal of the Proclamation was to increase English speaking immigration to Quebec
  • Britain hoped that putting British laws in place would encourage this, however few British immigrants arrived in the years following the Proclamation and the Canadien population remained the majority
the main provisions of the royal proclamation of 1763
The Main Provisions of the Royal Proclamation of 1763
  • Western interior for the First Nations
  • Reduced the size of Quebec
  • Government by a governor and council appointed by the British monarch
  • Promised an elected assembly
  • Introduced the British legal system

To what group (British, immigrant, Yankee, Canadien, First Nations) was the Royal Proclamation most significant? Why?

james murray
James Murray
  • Military governor of New France 1760-1763
  • Murray did not see the decline of les habitants happening soon
  • Saw the hierarchical, aristocratic traditions of the Catholic Church and seigneuries as more stable than the democratic demands of the residents of the Thirteen Colonies
  • He ignored the provision of the Royal Proclamation for an elected assembly (he feared that this would cause a revolt by les Canadiens)
  • Britain recalls Murray in 1766 and the Royal Proclamation is reviewed due to many complaints by British residents of Quebec
  • The assimilation plan had failed
  • Would Quebec keep is Canadien culture?
sir guy carleton
Sir Guy Carleton
  • Carleton replaces Murray
  • He is worried that the discontent brewing in the Thirteen Colonies might spill over into Quebec
  • He also ignored the complaints of British merchants in Quebec and realized that a flood of British immigration into the cold and politically inhospitable environment of their former enemies (The French) was not going to happen
  • Carleton agreed with Murray that for both political and military reasons maintaining the support of les Canadiens was more important than appeasing British merchants
quebec act 1774
Quebec Act, 1774
  • The Quebec Act was passed in 1774 at Carleton’s urging
  • The Act :
    • revoked the Royal Proclamation and enlarged Quebec’s territory to include the Ohio Valley
    • Guaranteed French language rights
    • Had provisions to allow Roman Catholics to take some roles in governance (this is quite unique in the British Empire, and allowed nowhere else)
    • Reinstated French property and civil laws
      • Seigneurs role is reinstated
    • Kept British criminal law
      • This legal blend still exists today
    • Reintated a tithe (tax) to support the Catholic Church
      • Church officials feel more secure
let s think
Let’s Think…
  • Who in Quebec is happy with the Act?
  • Who is not-so-happy?
  • Who’s interests are served with the reinstatement of the Church tithe?
carleton cont d
Carleton cont’d
  • Like Murray he ignores demands for an elected assembly for fear of instability
  • An appointed council governs instead
  • However, other British North American colonies had elected assemblies
  • 1758 Nova Scotia has the first elected assembly in Canada
  • 1773 PEI elected its assembly
  • However, even in these colonies governors and executive councils had most of the power and could block any laws passed by elected legislative assemblies
the reaction in quebec
The Reaction in Quebec
  • Overall, the seigneurs and the Roman Catholic Church are content with the terms of the Quebec Act
  • British residents are however outraged
  • Many believed that they were being forced to live in foreign colony and had been misled into moving there
  • In the Thirteen Colonies the Act was seen as one of the many “Intolerable Acts” that Britain had passed since the mid 1760s
  • The colonies viewed this as an abuse of Britain’s power over the colonies and residents feared the loss of their own political, economic, and social rights
what are the major differences between the royal proclamation of 1763 and the quebec act of 1774
What are the Major Differences Between the Royal Proclamation of 1763, and the Quebec Act of 1774?
  • After the fall of New France the British faced the dilemma of how to govern a French-speaking colony
  • The Royal Proclamation of 1763 tried to assimilate the French population. Britain assumed that Quebec would come to be dominated by a British majority. When this failed, the Quebec Act was proclaimed.
  • With the Quebec Act of 1774 Britain changed course. They hoped to develop Canada as a dual community, English and French
what w as in the quebec act of 1774 to accomplish this
What Was in the Quebec Act of 1774 to Accomplish This?
  • The Quebec Act:
      • Opened the appointed council to French Canadians.
      • Allowed freedom of worship for Catholics.
      • Retained the seigneurial system.
discontent in the thirteen colonies
Discontent in the Thirteen Colonies
  • The problem of governing Quebec was not the only problem for the British
  • Britain had instituted a number of taxes in the colonies to help pay for:
    • The military costs of the Seven Years War
    • The military costs of Pontiac’s Resistance
    • The cost of keeping British soldiers in the Colonies
  • These taxes outraged colonists and contributed to the growing sense that the relationship of the Colonies with Britain was unbearable
  • The Colonists argued that they should have more of a voice in how they were governed and taxed
  • “No taxation without representation!” became a call to arms
other sources of discontent
Other Sources of Discontent
  • Many colonists felt the boundaries set out in the Royal Proclamation were a betrayal
  • They had fought the French over the Ohio Valley during the Seven Years War only to be excluded from the territory
  • The Quebec Act was the last straw for many
    • For many colonists the denial of the right to an elected assembly was the ultimate violation
the american war of independence 1776 1783
The American War of Independence 1776-1783
  • The ager against Britain united the Thirteen Colonies which had been traditionally separate entities
  • In 1774, 12 of the Colonies agreed to boycott British trade
  • In 1775, the rebels had several armed clashes with British soldiers
  • On July 4th, 1776 the rebels drafted the Declaration of Independence which proclaimed that the Thirteen Colonies were no longer part of the British Empire
  • The American War Of Independence had begun
canadiens called to action
Canadiens Called to Action
  • The rebels in the Thirteen Colonies hoped that the Canadiens would support their cause and called for them to overthrow the British in Quebec
  • Britain hoped that the Quebec Act had appeased the Canadiens, and the Church in Quebec advised the population to side with the British
  • When Yankee rebels attacked the Quebec City and Montreal in 1775, most Canadiens were indifferent and stayed neutral
let s think1
Let’s Think…
  • In light of the events occurring in the Thirteen Colonies, what may have been a primary motivation for the British passing the Quebec Act?
  • Why did the Yankees feel that the Canadiens would be natural allies considering their cultural differences?
  • Why would The Church in Quebec advise Canadiensto support the Protestant British occupiers of their colony?
treaty of paris 1783
Treaty of Paris, 1783
  • The treaty of Paris of 1783 officially ends the American War of Independence
  • Toward the end of the war Britain was having significant financial difficulties and their negotiators were told to end the War at any price
  • Thus the Treaty heavily favored the Americans
  • The Treaty set out the right of British North America to exist independently of the newly formed country to the south, but the boundary lines were generous to the USA
  • In particular the Americans controlled the Ohio Valley
lets think
Lets Think…
  • Why is a treaty ending a war between Britain and the Yankees signed in Paris?
  • What does the signing of this Treaty mean for the First Nations within the Ohio Valley?
how loyal a re you
How Loyal Are You?
  • Picture it, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, 2035
  • The majority of Manitobans have decided that they are upset with the current federal arrangement in Canada. Many feel we are paying far too much federal tax, and do not have enough representation in the federal government. Many are going to rebel against the Canadian Federation.
  • You, your friends, family, and neighbors will all have to make a difficult decision. Do you rebel, and take up arms if necessary to forcefully gain your province’s independence from Canada, or do you remain loyal to your country (Canada).
    • If you remain loyal you may be persecuted at home in Manitoba and will have to leave your home, career, and most of your possessions behind and move elsewhere in Canada
    • If you rebel it will mean armed conflict against the Canadian military
  • What would you do????
united empire loyalists
United Empire Loyalists
  • A major concession received by the British after at the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was that whose who remained loyal to Britain during the American War of Independence would be protected
    • Not everyone in the Thirteen colonies had rebelled
  • Those who remained loyal to Britain were called the United Empire Loyalists
  • After the War many Loyalists were bewildered at how a relatively small group of rebels had defeated an empire, and many had been persecuted during the War
  • Most were forced to flee their land, homes, and possessions
where did they go
Where Did They Go?
  • Some Loyalists arrive in BNA soon after the war breaks out
  • Most were evacuated from by ship from New York in 1783 and 1784
  • Some Loyalists went back to Britain or other British colonies
  • Governor Carleton wants as many as possible in BNA
  • Between 1782 and 1784,
    • 35 000 Loyalist families settle in Nova Scotia
    • 10 000 Loyalist families settle in Quebec
    • 100 000 in total migrate to BNA
new brunswick
New Brunswick
  • In Nova Scotia Loyalists soon outnumbered the rest of the population
  • Soon they demanded political autonomy
  • In 1784 the area was separated from Nova Scotia and became the colony of New Brunswick
  • Like Nova Scotia, new Brunswick had an elected assembly, something Quebec did not yet have
  • In Quebec most Loyalists took advantage of free land to the west of seigneurial lands along the Great lakes
the constitution act of 1791
The Constitution Act of 1791
  • The arrival of the Loyalists changes BNA’s demographics by increasing both its English speaking population and demand for agricultural land
    • They make up 9% of the population
  • The Loyalists expected a full range of democratic rights which at this point in history was quite radical
  • The Roman Catholic population in Quebec was by contrast quite traditional and conservative
  • The changing social landscape causes Carleton to revamp the Quebec Act and try a 3rd experiment in governing Quebec: The Constitution Act of 1791
the constitution act of 1791 cont d
The Constitution Act of 1791 cont’d
  • The Constitution Act recognized that there were 2 dominant groups in Quebec and each had different religious, political, and legal outlooks and different economic and land-holding traditions
    • Traditional, conservative, Roman Catholic, French-speaking Canadiens
    • More radical, Protestant, English-speaking Loyalists
  • To reflect this reality Carleton created 2 separate colonies
    • Upper Canada (present day Ontario)
    • Lower Canada (present day Quebec)
the constitution act of 1791 cont d x2
The Constitution Act of 1791 cont’d x2
  • Each of the Canadas would maintain its own language regulations, laws, and-holding system, and religious institutions
  • Protestant Churches would receive preferential land grants in both colonies
  • Each colony would have a capital city
    • Quebec City would be the capital of Quebec
    • Newark (now Niagra on the Lake) would be the capital of Upper Canada
  • A Governor General appointed by Britain would oversee the governance of both colonies
  • Britain would also appoint a lieutenant governor for each colony, who would then the members of 2 councils for the colony:
    • The Legislative Council
    • The Executive Council
  • Each colony would have an elected assembly, but decisions made by the assembly could be blocked by a veto by the appointed councils, a lieutenant-governor, or the Governor General
what are the main provisions of the constitution act of 1791
What are the Main Provisions of The Constitution Act of 1791?
  • Divided the colony into two sections – Upper and Lower
  • Each colony was to be governed by an appointed governor and council and an elected assembly.
  • Reserved land to pay for government (Crown reserves) and for maintenance of a Protestant church (clergy services).
  • British legal and landholding systems for Upper Canada.
  • Preserved French-Catholic rights in Lower Canada.
let s think2
Let’s Think…
  • Does the Constitution Act of 1791 lay out a democratic framework for the Canadas? Why, or Why not?
  • The Constitution Act of 1791 creates 2 culturally distinct colonies. However, does it create 2 equal colonies? Why, or Why not?
  • Does the Constitution Act of 1791 give any insight into our current political landscape in Canada? Why, or Why not?
who were the loyalists
Who Were the Loyalists?
  • They represent a broad cross section of North American society:
    • Rich, poor, young, old, male, female, European, African America, First Nations
  • They had varied reasons for leaving
    • Some had British roots and wanted to live under British rule
    • Others found life intolerable in the Thirteen Colonies after the War as rebels harassed anyone who had not supported them
    • Some were conscientious objectors
    • Some were “Land Loyalists” hoping to take advantage of free land offered to loyalists in BNA
    • Neutrality was not possible as rebels treated neutral parties the same as they treated those loyal to Britain
who were the loyalists cont d
Who Were the Loyalists? Cont’d
  • The wealthy were able some possessions with them, but most arrived with what they could carry
  • While land had been promised, for many Loyalists it took years to get land, if at all
  • For those who received land, many found that there were no homes, roads, or services
  • They became pioneers, starting from scratch
  • Some of those without the necessary skills migrated back to the US or to Britain
  • Most survived their tough first years with the help of their neighbors and even First Nations
  • Families gathered for “bees” to accomplish large tasks like building a home or clearing land. These were also social occasions in an otherwise lonely existence
first nations loyalists
First Nations Loyalists
  • Loyalist refugees also included many First Nations people who fought alongside the British
  • First Nations Loyalists were fighting for their communities’ survival, the battlefields were their homelands, and the casualties were often their families
  • Many were members of the Iroquois Six Nations Confederacy who had been neutral at the beginning of the War, but were convinced in 1777 to support Britain as the only hope of retaining territory in the Ohio Valley and Great lakes regions (4 of 6 join British, the remaining 2 join the rebels)
  • Despite their loyalty and many contributions to the war effort, they were ignored in the Treaty of Paris in 1783
black loyalists
Black Loyalists
  • While Americans celebrated the declaration of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”, African slaves in America had no such rights of priveledges
    • Slaves were not allowed to vote, marry, congregate, or move freely.
    • They were regarded as the property of their owners
  • During the War of Independence Britain hoped both disrupt the American economy and recruit new British troops by encouraging slaves to escape their owners and join the British Army
  • In 1775 the British governor in Virginia issued a proclamation promising freedom and land to any slaves who enlisted with Britain and thousands accepted
  • At the end of the war these slaves were issued Certificates of Freedom and in 1783 were offered passage from New York to Nova Scotia (3000 in total)
  • However other African slaves came to North America with their white Loyalist owners and were expected to continue their plight of slavery in BNA
  • Despite the promises made, few Black Loyalists ever received land due to the expectation of Bristish administrators that Black Loyalists would serve the white population rather than become independent farmers
  • Famine and racism pervaded their lives and living conditions were not very different than the slavery they thought they had left behind
    • Ex: a black woman was given 200 lashes for stealing less than a shilling 9a few cents). A white person might have paid a small fine
  • Consequently, as many as 1200 Black Loyalists left for a colony built by the British anti-slavery society in Sierra Leone in West Africa
relations with the united states
Relations with the United States
  • The Treaty of Paris (1783) did not end tension between the US and Britain
    • Britain had still not vacated many posts in the Ohio Valley despite promises to do so
    • The Americans believed that Britain was encouraging First Nations hostility towards settlers moving west
    • Britain, again at war with France was seizing American trade ships on their way to France and boarding American ships in search of British naval deserters. In some cases American sailors were forced into service for Britain (impressment)
    • Britain was upset about the American treatment of Loyalists and the inability of British subjects to claim debts from before the war
  • Tensions were ready to erupt in 1794
jay s treaty 1794
Jay’s Treaty (1794)
  • To avoid another war, American president sent negotiator John Jay to London
    • In November of 1794 the Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation (Jay’s Treaty) was signed
    • Terms of the Treaty included
    • Joint commissions and arbitration to settle disputes over debts or boundaries
    • Britain abandoned posts in the Ohio Valley by 1796
    • First Nations rights to moved and trade freely across the border (some of these “free passage rights” are still exercised today)
      • However, the treaty gave no protections for First Nations Land in the Ohio Valley
    • A preferential trading agreement between Britain and the US
  • Trade increased and was avoided, however most terms expired after a decade, and by 1806 this relationship deteriorated steadily
let s think3
Let’s Think…
  • Why would these countries set up economic and trade partnerships with their enemy? What is the value in such an arrangement?
dissatisfaction grows
Dissatisfaction Grows
  • Not all Americans had liked the Treaty
  • Some politicians, such as James Madison and Thomas Jefferson, objected from the beginning
  • They wanted freedom to trade with any nation including France
  • Many Americans were suspicious of British involvement in First Nations uprisings in the west, believing that the British were supplying guns
  • Also, Britain was still at war with France and still boarding American ships at sea
  • By 1812, a group of American politicians from the south, nicknamed the War Hawks, was calling for the Americans to permanently rid North America of British influence
picture it
Picture it….
  • Canada, 2030. The Americans have just voted in a severely conservative President, and all ranks of the American government are keen to expand American territory. US forces invade Windsor ON, and begin spreading propaganda across Canada in an attempt to convince the population to remain passive and not resist invasion. The US intends to absorb Canada into the American Federation.
  • What should Canada, and Canadians do? Why??
the war of 1812
The War of 1812
  • Began on July 12, 1812 when the Americans (led by general Hull) invaded Upper Canada with 2000 men
  • They occupied Sandwich (Windsor)
  • Hull issued propaganda to try to convince the population to not resist invasion
    • Many people were Loyalists, however many were “Land Loyalists”, and had really only left the 13 colonies for free land
    • No one was sure how the population would respond
  • However, shortly after taking Sandwich, the Americans had supply problems
  • They had to retreat to Fort Detroit
the best defense is a g ood offense
The Best Defense is a Good Offense
  • Sir Isaac Brock was head of the British forces in Canada
  • After the invasion he worried about the general mood of the population, which seemed defeated
  • Rather than wait for the next invasion he joined forces with Tecumseh, leader of the Shawnee First Nation (from the Ohio Valley)
  • Britain promised to support Shawnee land claims in exchange for help
  • On August 16, they mounted an attack of Fort Detroit and scored a decisive victory despite being outnumbered 1300 vs. 2000
  • It is said that General Hull was terrified of the cries of Tecumseh’s forces outside the walls of the Fort and surrendered almost immediately
  • This quick success helped build support among the Canadian population and was started to believed that they could win
  • When the call for militia members went out, many signed up
  • The ensuing war had many battles on both sides of the border, on the Great Lakes, at sea, and in the American South
  • British soldiers, militia in Upper and Lower Canada, First Nations, and Metis fought off the Americans
let s think4
Let’s Think…
  • What might have been the short term, and long term consequences if Brock and Tecumseh had not taken Fort Detroit?
  • What are the short term, and long term consequences of the British winning the War of 1812?
the treaty of guent 1814
The Treaty of Guent (1814)
  • After 2 years of fighting the War ends in a stalemate
  • In the Treaty of Guent neither side made territorial, economic, or political gains
  • First Nations did not get land concessions in the Ohio Valley
  • Britain did not push this point and wanted negotiations to be short so as to focus on its war with France
consequences of the war of 1812
Consequences of the War of 1812
  • Britain began construction on the Rideau Canal (the St. Laurence had come under attack during the War and Britain wanted to ensure an alternative transportation route in the event of another war)
  • British nationalism is born? Some say the War was the story of British Loyalists fighting off the American threat. Other point out that most of the population refused to fight
  • Nevertheless the loyalist myth unified the colony and justified the authority of the Loyalist elite in the colony
post war population boom
Post War Population Boom
  • From 1812 to the end of the 1840s immigration to BNA increases dramatically
    • 1784-1815 saw 25 000 immigrants
    • 1815-1850 saw 960 000 from Britain alone
    • Natural increase as well especially in Lower Canada (population doubles from 1750-1875)
  • Population growth leads to more agriculture, towns, larger cities, more canals, the beginning of a railway boom across the colonies
social and economic changes
Social and Economic Changes
  • Dramatic change in the middle 19th century since the Quebec Act of 1774
    • French still majority in Lower Canada
    • British, American, and African Immigrants change the population mix in the colonies
    • Black population grows by 40 000 during the American Civil war (1861-1865)
      • Britain’s Slavery Abolition Act (1833) abolished slavery in BNA which had been practiced since the early days of New France. Many Loyalists had brought slaves with them
    • Many slaves arrived using the Underground Railroad, which was a network of safe houses that help people escape slavery.
    • Most African American refugees settled in Upper Canada, some in Nova Scotia, and some in the West
social and economic changes cont d
Social and Economic Changes cont’d
  • Britain made efforts to maintain First Nations rights to land during this period, however the growing population wanted more farmland, and usually colonists won that right from the British and the expense of First Nations
  • First Nations were no longer partners with Britain in warfare, and were frequently ignored by colonial and British governments
  • In 1857, the province of Canada passes the Gradual Civilization Act which had the explicit goal of assimilating First Nations so that they “would no longer be deemed Indians”
let s think5
Let’s Think…
  • What does then title “Gradual Civilization Act” tell you about BNA attitudes towards First Nations in the mid 19th century?
  • What is assimilation?
social and economic changes cont d1
Social and Economic Changes cont’d
  • The Loyalist migration had helped create he beginnings of a middle class
  • Businesses in timber, tanning, and clothing develop
  • Trade and professions like law and banking develop
  • Schools are built town services are established
  • Towns and cities governed on British principles, however the American influence on many Loyalists did create an expectation of a government responsive to their wishes
the canada us border
The Canada US Border
  • Canada and The US have not been at war since the war of 1812
  • Out peaceful coexistence was outlined in a series of treaties
  • Treaty of Guent (1814) established a truce
  • The Anglo-American Convention of 1818 established the 49th parallel as the official western boundary (from Lake of the Woods to the Rockies
let s think6
Let’s Think…
  • What consequence of the War of 1812 do you think is the most historically significant? Why?
  • What issues will affect BNA going forward from 1814?
towards responsible government
Towards Responsible Government
  • The Constitution Act of 1791 had established a government structure with traditional rule by an elite minority of the population
  • Yet the Act was passed in an era of revolution
    • The American Revolution (1776)
    • French Revolution (1789)
  • These revolutions were in part an expression for the right of people to have more control over their lives
rule by oligarchy
Rule by Oligarchy
  • Both Upper and Lower Canada though linguistically and religiously divided were both ruled by a small elite ruling class(oligarchy)
    • Lower Canada: Chateau Clique
    • Upper Canada: Family Compact
  • Both oligarchies were mostly English speaking with a few seigniorial leaders in Lower Canada
  • The elites were mostly members of the Anglican Church and the Church received benefits that others did not, like clergy reserves (large tracts of land to support the Church and its officials
    • These elites used political power to expand their wealth
    • The priorities were massive industrial projects (canals, railways) that would help their businesses grow
  • What the colonies really needed were roads, so they could move between their farms and the markets and services in the nearest towns




let s think7
Let’s Think…
  • How does the building of massive industrial projects like canals and railways strengthen the grip of the oligarchies over the colonies?
  • How do these projects disadvantage the average colonist?
oligarchy cont d
Oligarchy cont’d
  • The elites dominated each colonies executive and legislative councils and were often in conflict with the legislative assemblies
  • People were infuriated as the legislative council would often override laws passed by the assembly and many thought their needs were being ignored by the government
  • At the same the council needed the approval of the assembly to approve tax increase for major projects, and the assembly often refused
  • Conflict and animosity often abounded
demands for responsible government
Demands for Responsible Government
  • Reformers were people on the elected assemblies (they held the majority of the seats) who wanted responsible government; a government which is accountable to the electorate (the people)
  • A responsible government is kept accountable by the voters who can elect the government, or vote for change
  • The voices of the reformers grew in urgency through the 1820s and 1830s and newspapers were often a way to spread the message
    • One important leader of the reformers was William Lyon Mackenzie who used his newspaper the Colonial Advocate to this end
    • In Lower Canada the newspaper Le Canadienwas the voice of reform
  • The focus of reform in both Upper and Lower Canada was increasing the political and economic rights of population
    • In Lower Canada their was the additional element of the fight against assimilation into British North American culture
      • Lower Canada was still overwhelmingly Canadien, and leaders wanted the right to determine their own future
the road to rebellion
The Road to Rebellion
  • In 1834 Lower Canada passed a reform bill titled: The Ninety Two Resolutions
  • In 1835 Upper Canada passed a reform bill titled: The Seventh Report on Grievances
    • Both called for the appointed councils to be more receptive to the ideas of the elected assemblies and both were vetoed and ignored by the executive councils
  • Some decided that a moderate approach was not working
    • Radical groups from both colonies who were tired of waiting for their rights caused a split in the movement between those who wanted to work within the law and the radicals
      • Lower Canada rebels: les Patriotes
rebellion breaks out
Rebellion Breaks Out
  • Throughout 1837 discontent grows and protest rallies and violence occur on the streets of Montreal
  • Government troops tried to arrest rebel leaders on Nov 16th resulting in violent clashes, by Nov 25th several Lower Canada towns had been looted and burned by government troops, and rebel leaders fled
  • On Dec 4thMacKenzie calls a meeting of rebels in Upper Canada, and on Dec 7th, armed with pitchforks and any other weapons tey could find they marched towards Toronto.
    • They were met by the militia, forcing them to retreat
  • By Dec 8th the rebellions were over, the rebels had lost, and the rebel leaders were on the run
the aftermath of the rebellions
The Aftermath of the Rebellions
  • The rebels had been poorly equipped to fight the better supplied and trained government troops
  • Hundreds of rebels were imprisoned
  • In Montreal, 12 Patriotes were hanged for treason
  • In Upper Canada, at least 20 rebels were hanged
  • Both leaders, Papineau (Lower Canada) and MacKenzie (Upper Canada) sought asylum in the US and were later pardoned
lord durham s report
Lord Durham’s Report
  • Britain sensed it was losing control of both Upper and Lower Canada and sent Governor General Durham to recommended solutions to the problems that had caused the rebellion
  • Durham’s proposals would forever change the way Canada would be governed
    • In Upper Canada he blamed the Family Compact, describing them as “a petty, corrupt, insolent Tory (conservative) clique, and called for a government that would be more responsive to the wishes of the majority of the assembly
    • In Lower Canada he blamed the divisions between French and English and recommended the union of Upper and Lower Canada into one colony with the goal of assimilating Lower Canada’s Canadien residents
let s think8
Let’s Think…
  • Why did the Chateau Clique (Lower Canada’s Oligarchy) not get any blame?
  • Let’s review the British policy shifts:
    • Royal Proclamation 1763
    • Quebec Act 1774
    • Constitutional Act 1791
    • Soon to come: The Act of Union 1841
  • How are Les Canadiens going to feel about this report?
  • What does this tell you about the ongoing British attitude towards les Canadiens?

“I believe that tranquility can only be restored by subjecting the Province to the vigorous rule of an English majority” - Durham

the act of union 1841
The Act of Union 1841
  • This act united Upper and Lower Canada into one colony: The province of Canada
    • Lower Canada becomes Canada East
    • Upper Canada becomes Canada West
  • The colony would have one governor, one elected assembly, and one language in the legislature- English
  • Both Canada East and West would get equal representation in the Assembly
  • Is this equal for Les Canadiens?
  • French Canadiens suspected the goal of the Act was assimilation
  • As a result, politicians from Canada East voted together to block policies originating in Canada West, who’s politicians rarely could agree and vote together. The work of the assembly quickly comes to a halt
the act of union 1841 cont d
The Act of Union 1841 cont’d
  • Eventually 2 moderate politicians Baldwin and Lafontaine, formed a coalition and both parties agreed to work together
  • Both men hoped to achieve responsible government within the confines of the Act of Union
  • For the next 10 years the governor generals attempted to help the Chateau Clique and Family Compact hang on to power and were resisted by reformers within this coalition
  • In the end, shifting economic policies, and a decline in the need tight control over the colonies helped reformers as Britain became more receptive to the idea of responsible government in Canada
  • In 1848 the new governor general, Lord Elgin called upon Baldwin and Lafontaine to form the executive council from members of the assembly(who were elected by the population)
  • From this time on the executive council needed the support of the assembly for any of its decisions (giving more democracy to the colony)
nova scotia and responsible government
Nova Scotia and Responsible Government
  • At the same time as calls for responsible government were happening in Upper and Lower Canada, newspaperman Joseph Howe was leading a similar reform movement in Nova Scotia
  • Like Mackenzie, Howe used his newspaper to criticize the colony’s elites (oligarchy)
    • Howe was more moderate however
    • He was the son of a Loyalist and publicly condemned the actions of the rebels
  • In 1848, Nova Scotia achieved the first responsible government in BNA (shortly after it was granted in Canada)
    • Howe proudly claimed that it had been achieved without “a blow struck or a pane of glass broken”