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British North America. The American Colonies. Britain Who?. Names we can call Britain and the British: United Kingdom (UK) Britain Great Britain British England English Mother Country Red Coats (soldiers during the revolution) Lobster Backs (soldiers during the revolution) .

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British North America

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    1. British North America The American Colonies

    2. Britain Who? • Names we can call Britain and the British: • United Kingdom (UK) • Britain • Great Britain • British • England • English • Mother Country • Red Coats (soldiers during the revolution) • Lobster Backs (soldiers during the revolution)

    3. Why did the British come to America? • Many different reasons: • Opportunity for cheap land • Religious freedom • To escape England (maybe they owned someone a lot of money) • Chance at a better life • To make a name for themselves • Etc…

    4. British Colonies: The Regions • The British colonies were set up along the coast of the Atlantic ocean. • Three regions: • 1. New England Colonies • MA, NH, RI, CT • 2. Middle Colonies • NY, NJ, PA, DE • 3. Southern Colonies • MD, VA, NC, SC, GA

    5. Southern Colonies • Jamestown: 1st successful English colony • Located in Virginia • Founded in 1607 • Established by a joint-stock company (a company owned by a group of investors)

    6. Southern Colonies • Jamestown: winter was bitter and many people died of starvation and illness. • Native Americans helped the settlers. • John Rolfe discovers tobacco and institutes the headright system (provides 50 acres of land to those who would agree to settle in the colony). Click Here To View the Jamestown Simulation

    7. Southern Colonies- Economy • Cash Crops- crops grown solely for the purpose of making money. • Tobacco- VA, MD, NC • Indigo & Rice- SC, GA • Staple Crops- crops that are in large demand and provide a large bulk of a region’s income • Lead to the plantation system • Plantations are huge farms owned by wealthy elite and grow cash crops • Plantations require a lot of manual labor- high demand for slaves and indentured servants Tobacco Plant Indigo dye buckets

    8. Southern Colonies- Economy • Indentured Servants- people who could not afford to come to North America on their own. • They agreed to work for a land owner for up to 7 seven years in exchange for paying for their passage to America • Eventually the system died out and was completely replaced by slavery • The South did not develop major centers of commerce or cities because of the access to water ways to transport goods.

    9. Southern Colonies- Society • Class distinctions were made in the South between the plantation owners, poor farmers and slaves.

    10. Southern Colonies- Society • Public education- did not exist • Poor farmers- if they were educated, it was at home • Wealthy Southerners- hired private tutors or sent their children to Europe for formal education • Southern colonies were established mostly for economic reasons, not religious reasons. • Rich land owners remained part of the Church of England • Poorer southerners eventually developed Baptist and Methodist denominations

    11. New England Colonies • Many people who settled in the New England colonies came to America for religious reasons. • Religious Dissent – disagreement with the Anglican Church (Church of England) • Dissenters faced persecution in England, so the fled to America The Puritans were a large dissenting group.

    12. New England Colonies- Puritans • Established a community based solely on “pure biblical teachings”. • 1620- group of Puritans landed at Plymouth, MA. • Called “Pilgrims” – celebrated the first Thanksgiving in 1621. Painting depicting the first Thanksgiving.

    13. New England Colonies – Puritans • Other Puritans settled in MA, NH, CT and RI. • Massachusetts Bay Colony • Rhode Island- founded by Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson after they dissented from the Bay Colony. • NEW ENGLAND COLONIES AS A WHOLE WERE STRONGLY INFLUENCED BY THE PURITAN FAITH!

    14. New England Colonies- Economy • Relied on the Atlantic Ocean’s resources. • Shipbuilding • Trade • Fishing • Trade with England and West Indies • Small farms to feed families • Boston, Massachusetts – booming urban center for shipping and New England commerce.

    15. New England Colonies- Society • Puritan faith was so important that in many colonies there was mandatory church attendance. • Faith, family, community • Promoted public education ( so everyone could read the Bible) • Only boys attended school. Girls were trained for ‘womanly duties”. • Harvard University and Yale University ( originally established to train ministers),or.r_cp.r_qf.&fp=393d9bf6001eac38&q=harvard+university+established&sa=1&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&

    16. Middle Colonies • Very culturally diverse! • Tolerant of other religions • Geographically in the middle (get from both sides) • People from other places settled here ( Swedes and Dutch)

    17. Middle Colonies- Economy • Depended on farming and commerce. • Farmers raised staple crops: wheat, barley and rye. • Large cities: New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore (also important shipping ports) • Not as many slaves. Slaves worked in shops in the cities as well as on farms. • Fur trade. • Trade with Native Americans.

    18. Middle Colonies- Society • Pennsylvania- Established by William Penn, became home of the Quakers • Quakers- religious groups that did not recognize class differences, promoted equality of men and women, non-violence, dealt fairly with Native Americans. • Quakers’ tolerance attracted other groups: • German Lutherans • Scotch-Irish • Presbyterians • Swiss Mennonites

    19. Middle Colonies- Society • Aristocracy (upper class)- made up of merchants who dealt with foreign trade • Middle class- craftsmen, retailers and businessmen • Lower classes- sailors, unskilled workers and some artisans

    20. Colonial Journal • Pick a region • Pick a colony • Pick a name • Pick a faith • Pick a job • Write a 1 page diary entry about a day in your life. Include thoughts on your faith, job, surroundings etc.

    21. Colonial Government • Colonies were so far away from Britain that it was hard to govern them. • British adopted a policy called salutary neglect. • This allowed the colonists to govern themselves for the most part.

    22. Colonial Government- Representative • The colonies decided to have a representative government (Britain had one too). • This meant that the people would elect representatives that they trusted to make laws and decisions for them.

    23. Colonial Government • Mayflower Compact- first effort of self-governing by settlers. • Pilgrims that arrived on the Mayflower wrote this document that set up a government and said that the power of the government COMES FROM THE PEOPLE! Click Here to Watch the Mayflower Video

    24. Colonial Women • Woman were mostly second class citizens. • Although, they had it better than women still in England. • Could not vote. • Could not attend school. • Under their husband’s or father’s control, by law. • Main jobs: Have children, raise children, keep the house.

    25. African Americans and Slavery • First African Americans came to Jamestown, VA in 1619. • Some started out as indentured servants. • Over time: racism and greed lead to the institution of African American slavery in the colonies. • South: work in fields, segregated from the rest of society. • Middle & New England: worked some in fields, but also in shops, homes and businesses.

    26. Foundations of Representative Government • Colonial gov’t was based on principles established in England. • England began to practice limited government. • Limited government is government based on the rule of law. • Rule of law- everyone must obey the law (no one is above it)

    27. Foundations of Representative Government • Gov’ts based on rule of law MUST FOLLOW A SET OF RULES. • These rules usually are in a written document known as a charter or constitution.

    28. Government Documents • Magna Carta- “great charter” 1215. Group of nobles forced the king to sign it. • Said that the king could not raise taxes unless he consulted his council. • Council later becomes the British Parliament • English Bill of Rights- 1689 • Granted citizens all kinds of rights • Forbade cruel and unusual punishment, right to petition, right to a trial • Model for the US Bill of Rights

    29. After Quiz • After I have taken up your quiz I want you to turn to the next blank page in your notebook. • Title it “Reflection on Learning”and date it. • Complete the following. • 1. Write 3 things you learned this week. • 2. Write 2 things you already knew. • 3. Write 1 thing you would like to know more about.