British North America. The American Colonies. Britain Who?. Names we can call Britain and the British: United Kingdom (UK) Britain Great Britain British England English Mother Country Red Coats (soldiers during the revolution) Lobster Backs (soldiers during the revolution) .
British North America The American Colonies
Britain Who? • Names we can call Britain and the British: • United Kingdom (UK) • Britain • Great Britain • British • England • English • Mother Country • Red Coats (soldiers during the revolution) • Lobster Backs (soldiers during the revolution)
Why did the British come to America? • Many different reasons: • Opportunity for cheap land • Religious freedom • To escape England (maybe they owned someone a lot of money) • Chance at a better life • To make a name for themselves • Etc…
British Colonies: The Regions • The British colonies were set up along the coast of the Atlantic ocean. • Three regions: • 1. New England Colonies • MA, NH, RI, CT • 2. Middle Colonies • NY, NJ, PA, DE • 3. Southern Colonies • MD, VA, NC, SC, GA http://mrnussbaum.com/13colonies/13profiles/
Southern Colonies • Jamestown: 1st successful English colony • Located in Virginia • Founded in 1607 • Established by a joint-stock company (a company owned by a group of investors) http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2009/05/history-on-film-the-new-world/
Southern Colonies • Jamestown: winter was bitter and many people died of starvation and illness. • Native Americans helped the settlers. • John Rolfe discovers tobacco and institutes the headright system (provides 50 acres of land to those who would agree to settle in the colony). http://wg-apush.wikispaces.com/John+Rolfe Click Here To View the Jamestown Simulation
Southern Colonies- Economy • Cash Crops- crops grown solely for the purpose of making money. • Tobacco- VA, MD, NC • Indigo & Rice- SC, GA • Staple Crops- crops that are in large demand and provide a large bulk of a region’s income • Lead to the plantation system • Plantations are huge farms owned by wealthy elite and grow cash crops • Plantations require a lot of manual labor- high demand for slaves and indentured servants Tobacco Plant Indigo dye buckets http://science.howstuffworks.com/life/botany/tobacco-info1.htm
Southern Colonies- Economy • Indentured Servants- people who could not afford to come to North America on their own. • They agreed to work for a land owner for up to 7 seven years in exchange for paying for their passage to America • Eventually the system died out and was completely replaced by slavery • The South did not develop major centers of commerce or cities because of the access to water ways to transport goods. http://www.sonofthesouth.net/slavery/photographs/slaves.htm
Southern Colonies- Society • Class distinctions were made in the South between the plantation owners, poor farmers and slaves.
Southern Colonies- Society • Public education- did not exist • Poor farmers- if they were educated, it was at home • Wealthy Southerners- hired private tutors or sent their children to Europe for formal education • Southern colonies were established mostly for economic reasons, not religious reasons. • Rich land owners remained part of the Church of England • Poorer southerners eventually developed Baptist and Methodist denominations
New England Colonies • Many people who settled in the New England colonies came to America for religious reasons. • Religious Dissent – disagreement with the Anglican Church (Church of England) • Dissenters faced persecution in England, so the fled to America http://reformingbaptist.blogspot.com/2012/02/from-fundamentalism-to-puritanism.html The Puritans were a large dissenting group.
New England Colonies- Puritans • Established a community based solely on “pure biblical teachings”. • 1620- group of Puritans landed at Plymouth, MA. • Called “Pilgrims” – celebrated the first Thanksgiving in 1621. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/people-places/pilgrimsprogress.html Painting depicting the first Thanksgiving.
New England Colonies – Puritans • Other Puritans settled in MA, NH, CT and RI. • Massachusetts Bay Colony • Rhode Island- founded by Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson after they dissented from the Bay Colony. • NEW ENGLAND COLONIES AS A WHOLE WERE STRONGLY INFLUENCED BY THE PURITAN FAITH! http://poster.4teachers.org/view/poster.php?poster_id=470559
New England Colonies- Economy • Relied on the Atlantic Ocean’s resources. • Shipbuilding • Trade • Fishing • Trade with England and West Indies • Small farms to feed families • Boston, Massachusetts – booming urban center for shipping and New England commerce. http://www.tumblr.com
New England Colonies- Society • Puritan faith was so important that in many colonies there was mandatory church attendance. • Faith, family, community • Promoted public education ( so everyone could read the Bible) • Only boys attended school. Girls were trained for ‘womanly duties”. • Harvard University and Yale University ( originally established to train ministers) http://rapgenius.com/Mac-miller-gees-lyrics#note-1858985 https://www.google.com/search?q=Veri+tas&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=204OUu-SHeSQyAGR6IE4&ved=0CAkQ_AUoAQ&biw=1117&bih=792#bav=on.2,or.r_cp.r_qf.&fp=393d9bf6001eac38&q=harvard+university+established&sa=1&tbm=isch&facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=5JNoIRdns4spXM%3A%3BmhvZ_130odK-wM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Ftopics.onepakistan.com%252Fwp-content%252Fuploads%252F2012%252F05%252FHarvard-University-Logo.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Ftopics.onepakistan.com.pk%252Fharvard-university%252F%3B600%3B467
Middle Colonies • Very culturally diverse! • Tolerant of other religions • Geographically in the middle (get from both sides) • People from other places settled here ( Swedes and Dutch) https://www.google.com/search?q=middle+colonies&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=6VAOUvnxCaeg4APGm4DACg&sqi=2&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAQ&biw=1117&bih=792#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=fHHtRZS9T35L9M%3A%3BuO1Q9QLWbjGF_M%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fenglishcolonizationofna06.pbworks.com%252Ff%252F1317276363%252FMiddle%252520Colonies.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fenglishcolonizationofna06.pbworks.com%252Fw%252Fpage%252F46062584%252FThe%252520Middle%252520Colonies%3B323%3B238
Middle Colonies- Economy • Depended on farming and commerce. • Farmers raised staple crops: wheat, barley and rye. • Large cities: New York, Philadelphia and Baltimore (also important shipping ports) • Not as many slaves. Slaves worked in shops in the cities as well as on farms. • Fur trade. • Trade with Native Americans. http://www.mi9.com/free-wheat-field-landscape-desktop-wallpaper_81252.html
Middle Colonies- Society • Pennsylvania- Established by William Penn, became home of the Quakers • Quakers- religious groups that did not recognize class differences, promoted equality of men and women, non-violence, dealt fairly with Native Americans. • Quakers’ tolerance attracted other groups: • German Lutherans • Scotch-Irish • Presbyterians • Swiss Mennonites
Middle Colonies- Society • Aristocracy (upper class)- made up of merchants who dealt with foreign trade • Middle class- craftsmen, retailers and businessmen • Lower classes- sailors, unskilled workers and some artisans
Colonial Journal • Pick a region • Pick a colony • Pick a name • Pick a faith • Pick a job • Write a 1 page diary entry about a day in your life. Include thoughts on your faith, job, surroundings etc.
Colonial Government • Colonies were so far away from Britain that it was hard to govern them. • British adopted a policy called salutary neglect. • This allowed the colonists to govern themselves for the most part. http://geology.com/world/world-map.shtml
Colonial Government- Representative • The colonies decided to have a representative government (Britain had one too). • This meant that the people would elect representatives that they trusted to make laws and decisions for them. http://molinaheartshealth.com/?p=391
Colonial Government • Mayflower Compact- first effort of self-governing by settlers. • Pilgrims that arrived on the Mayflower wrote this document that set up a government and said that the power of the government COMES FROM THE PEOPLE! http://news.rapgenius.com/The-pilgrims-mayflower-compact-lyrics Click Here to Watch the Mayflower Video
Colonial Women • Woman were mostly second class citizens. • Although, they had it better than women still in England. • Could not vote. • Could not attend school. • Under their husband’s or father’s control, by law. • Main jobs: Have children, raise children, keep the house. http://womenshistory.about.com/od/earlyamerica/ss/Colonial-Women-At-Work.htm
African Americans and Slavery • First African Americans came to Jamestown, VA in 1619. • Some started out as indentured servants. • Over time: racism and greed lead to the institution of African American slavery in the colonies. • South: work in fields, segregated from the rest of society. • Middle & New England: worked some in fields, but also in shops, homes and businesses.
Foundations of Representative Government • Colonial gov’t was based on principles established in England. • England began to practice limited government. • Limited government is government based on the rule of law. • Rule of law- everyone must obey the law (no one is above it)
Foundations of Representative Government • Gov’ts based on rule of law MUST FOLLOW A SET OF RULES. • These rules usually are in a written document known as a charter or constitution. www.thefederalistpapers.org
Government Documents • Magna Carta- “great charter” 1215. Group of nobles forced the king to sign it. • Said that the king could not raise taxes unless he consulted his council. • Council later becomes the British Parliament • English Bill of Rights- 1689 • Granted citizens all kinds of rights • Forbade cruel and unusual punishment, right to petition, right to a trial • Model for the US Bill of Rights
After Quiz • After I have taken up your quiz I want you to turn to the next blank page in your notebook. • Title it “Reflection on Learning”and date it. • Complete the following. • 1. Write 3 things you learned this week. • 2. Write 2 things you already knew. • 3. Write 1 thing you would like to know more about.