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Learning Recap!. The relationship between the developed and the developing world is a neo-colonial one?.

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learning recap
Learning Recap!

The relationship between the developed and the developing world is a neo-colonial one?


Superpower Geographies2. Impacts and influences of Superpowers a) The changes from colonial rule to indirect neo-colonial ruleb) Key roles in international decision making, policy and action c) Control of trade d) Superpower influence in the idea of developing a ‘global culture’

Learning objectives

To understand what Inter-governmental Organisations are and what they do

To understand the impact of IGOs

To assess the role of IGOs in promoting superpowers

international organisations or intergovernmental organisations igos
International Organisations or Intergovernmental Organisations - IGOs
  • Make key decisions about
    • World economy
    • Politics/Conflicts
    • Environmental issues
  • Small number of key players on IGOs
  • Often created by superpowers post war as a way to promote cooperation and reduce conflict
  • Critics say created by superpowers for superpowers
  • Some key IGOs include United Nations, NATO & Davos Group

Who are likely to be the key players?

international decision making
International Decision Making

Key players and groups:

The United Nations (UN) -

  • The UN General Assembly
  • The Security Council

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation)

The G8

Davos Group

The World Bank

The International Monetary Fund (IMF)

  • For each of these players and groups we must identify:
  • Function
  • Directly or indirect involvement or decision making
  • Members
  • Impact
power in igos
Power in IGOs
  • Big overlap in membership of IGOs
  • USA, EU dominate many – allows IGOs focus to follow their interests
  • Often have a veto
  • Lot of mutual support – has effect of a block vote
  • USA and EU work together to promote or block policies they favour

What impacts and influence do superpowers have?

Controlling international decision making

International decisions

UN security council

IMF more than 3% votes





World bank


What impacts and influence do superpowers have?

Controlling international decision making

International decisions

Before we find out what these agencies do – let’s research which agencies the following countries are in/ have control in:

Complete the table with a tick or cross.


Extension: What other agencies could we include?


UN security council

World bank





4.2 What impacts and influence do superpowers have?

4.2.2. Controlling international decision making

International decisions

Before we find out what these agencies do – research which agencies the following countries are in/ have control in:

Complete the table with a tick or cross.


Extension: What other agencies could we include?


UN security council

World bank




1 united nations
1. United Nations
  • Created 1945
  • Headquarters in New York
  • Annual budget $1.8 billion
  • 16 specialised agencies with

headquarters in France, Italy

Canada & Switzerland


the united nations
The United Nations
  • Function is to facilitate international law and security, economic development, social progress and human rights as well as achieve world peace
  • Founded in 1945 after World War II in replacement of the League of Nations
  • It has 192 member states.
un members and paymasters
UN Members and Paymasters

Greenland & Western Sahara among the few non UN members

Who pays most to fund the UN?

What impact might that have?

un agencies
UN Agencies

Do you know the following UN agencies?





united nations secretary general
United Nations Secretary General

Who am I?

What is my job?

Ban Ki-moon


The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG), is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. The Secretary-General also acts as the de facto spokesperson and leader of the United Nations.

  • The current Secretary-General is Ban Ki-moon of South Korea, who took office on 1 January 2007. His first term expired on 31 December 2011. He was re-elected, unopposed, to a second term on 21 June 2011.
the un general assembly
The UN General Assembly
  • The core institution of the UN
  • Each country represented there by their ambassador
  • Discuss international issues to try to resolve conflict by political means
  • The UN’s main function is to prevent the occurrence of major political international conflict, and to an extent it has fulfilled this function, as after WWII there has not been an international conflict of this nature.
  • Secondly it is meant to protect both nation states and it’s people from tyranny, colonialism and Imperialism
  • One member one vote
  • Decisions made by simple majority
  • Debate issues such as international conflicts, disarmament, human rights, refugee issues etc
  • Decisions are NOT legally binding but they have the weight of international opinion
the united nations and the un general assembly

The United Nations and the UN General Assembly

“we the people of the United Nations are determined to reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights , in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal rights of men and women and of nations large and small.”

uk at the un
UK at the UN
  • Who is the UK ambassador to the UN?

Sir Mark Lyall Grant

– since November 2009

greece at the un
Greece at the UN
  • Ambassador Anastasis Mitsialis (from 2009)
the un security council

They have a VETO – a right to reject resolutions. To be effective ALL must agree

The UN Security Council
  • Under UN Charter the Security Council has the main responsibility to maintain international peace and security
  • USA, UK, France, China & Russia – 5 Permanent members of 15 nation council
  • 10 others rotate on a 2 year cycle
  • The General Assembly make recommendations but the security council can direct nations to take action
      • It can apply sanctions
      • Send countries to The International Court
      • Send peace keeping troops

How can the security council be seen to be a form of political imperialism?


The UN Security Council

The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and security.

Security Council - which met for the first time in 1946




The functions and powers assigned to the Security Council under the

charter are the following:

  • to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the UN;
  • to investigate any dispute or situation that might lead to international friction and to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement;
  • to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or an act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken;
  • to call on members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force in order to prevent or stop aggression;
  • to take military action against an aggressor; and
  • to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments.


The Security Council's five permanent members have the

power and influence:




United Kingdom

United States

10 non-permanent member countries. Each member - permanent or otherwise - holds the presidency of the council for a one-month period, on a rotating basis

  • A State which is a Member of the United Nations but not of the Security Council may participate, without a vote, in its discussions when the Council considers that that country's interests are affected.
  • Both Members of the United Nations and non-members, if they are parties to a dispute being considered by the Council, are invited to take part, without a vote, in the Council's discussions; the Council sets the conditions for participation by a non-member State.

Right of veto

  • Veto- Each of the permanent members has the right of veto, if one votes against a resolution it can not be passed, but it can be if a permanent member abstains from voting
  • Regardless of the magnitude of the matter, regardless of how the rest of the world will be adversely affected, if one power opposes a action they can attempt to stop it from happening worldwide.


  • When a complaint concerning a threat to peace is brought before it, the Council's first action is usually to recommend to the parties to try to reach agreement by peaceful means.
  • In some cases, the Council itself undertakes investigation
  • It may set forth principles for a peaceful settlement.


  • Thailand and Cambodia claim success at UN Security Council talks

Feb 15, 2011

  • Bangkok/Phnom Penh - Thailand and Cambodia both claimed victory after a United Nations Security Council (UNSC) meeting in New York to discuss their conflict near an 11th-century Hindu temple on their common border.
  • A statement by the council released after the meeting expressed 'grave concern' at the clashes and called on both sides 'to display maximum restraint.'
  • The council called for a permanent ceasefire and said both nations should resolve the matter by talking. It gave its support for ongoing efforts by the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) to broker a solution.
where has the un been involved
Where has the UN been involved

Involved in several key flashpoints globally;

  • The Arab-Israeli conflict
  • Genocide in Rwanda
  • Brings the case for people to be tried at the ICC.
2 nato
  • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
north atlantic treaty organization nato
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
  • Military or defense alliance formed in 1949 by 12 countries in Western Europe and North America
  • Original purpose – to protect its members from a possible attack from the Soviet Union (Containment)
  • First peacetime alliance in U.S. history
  • An alliance of nations with shared values. All members are DEMOCRACIES
  • Has been the most important U.S. alliance for the past (almost) 60 years
nato treaty article 5
NATO Treaty – Article 5
  • “The Parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all…”
  • No NATO member was ever attacked during the Cold War – it never had to use its military forces
  • The first (and only) time a NATO member was attacked was…
    • September 11, 2001
the warsaw pact
The Warsaw Pact
  • 1955 - The Soviet response to the creation of NATO
  • Consisted of the Soviet Union and its six satellite countries in Eastern Europe
    • East Germany
    • Poland
    • Hungary
    • Czechoslovakia
    • Bulgaria
    • Romania
  • The Warsaw Pact no longer exists
eastward expansion
Eastward Expansion
  • As democracy spread throughout Eastern Europe, NATO is adding new members
  • 1999 – Three former Warsaw Pact members were admitted into NATO
    • Poland
    • Hungary
    • The Czech Republic
  • 2002 – Seven former communist states in Eastern Europe added
    • Estonia
    • Latvia
    • Lithuania
    • Slovenia
    • Slovakia
    • Bulgaria
  • How do you think Russia feels about this?
nato russia council
NATO-Russia Council
  • NATO-Russia Council
  • This was a RAPPROACHMENT between NATO and Russia
  • May 2002 – Both sides signed an agreement
  • Russia WILL:
    • Be given a say at the table with the 26 NATO members
    • Be an “equal partner” in discussions on key topics
nato russia council1
NATO-Russia Council
  • Russia WILL NOT:
    • Be a member of NATO
    • Be bound by NATO’s defense pact
    • Have a veto over NATO’s decisions
    • Have a vote over NATO’s expansion

NATO’s essential purpose is to safeguard the freedom and security of its members through political and military means.

  • POLITICAL - NATO promotes democratic values and encourages consultation and cooperation on defence and security issues to build trust and, in the long run, prevent conflict.
  • MILITARY - NATO is committed to the peaceful resolution of disputes. If diplomatic efforts fail, it has the military capacity needed to undertake crisis-management operations. These are carried out under Article 5 of the Washington Treaty - NATO’s founding treaty - or under a UN mandate, alone or in cooperation with other countries and international organizations.
3 the g8

3. The G8

The annual G8 leaders summit is attended by eight of the world's most powerful heads of government. The meeting is to bring a range of complex and sometimes inter-related issues to discussion.

function and decision making
Function and decision making
  • The G8 come together annually to discuss issues of mutual or global concern. Such issues include health, law enforcement, labour, economic and social development, energy, environment, foreign affairs, justice and interior, terrorism, and trade.
  • The summit decides on policies for a range of issues for all eight countries.
  • E.g. in 2010 water sanitation was on the agenda. They pledged support towards meeting Millennium Development Goals. They affirmed a common desire to achieve aid-effectiveness for development in Africa.
  • They discussed the importance of meeting MDG 4 (reducing child mortality) and MDG 5 (maternal health), but did not indicate water and sanitation as integral to such efforts anywhere in the main Declaration.
decisions on climate change and other issues
Decisions on climate change and other issues
  • One of the main most obvious issue for them to tackle at the moment is climate change. At the most recent G8 summit in Canada the leaders of the Group of Eight industrial nations agreed to a limit on global warming of 2 degrees Celsius. The leaders did not, however, agree to a universal emissions reduction target.
  • The July 2005 G8 Summit at Gleneagles, Scotland, had been preceded by the decision,  a month earlier, by G8 Ministers to cancel debts owed to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the African Development Bank by 18 poor, developing countries in Africa which had already satisfied HIPC conditions. The June decisions and those at the Gleneagles summit expanded them, this had been prompted by the strong advocacy for more aid to Africa mounted by the British government's Commission for Africa (CFA).
  • Although the G8 is sometimes seen as being omnipotent or the world’s directoire by anti-globalization protestors, it is also criticised for being irrelevant or a moribund entity because it does not have real decision-making capacities. Nonetheless, the G8 can play an important role and the Summit is simply symbolic.
4 the davos group or world economic forum wef
4. The Davos Group or World Economic Forum (WEF)
  • Swiss based non-profit making foundation
  • ‘Entrepreneurship in the global public interest’
  • Focus business & profit
  • Invitation only meeting
  • Who goes?

Business CEOs


Political Leaders

IGO representatives

The media

the davos group
The Davos Group
  • The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss non-profit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, best known for its annual meeting in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland.
  • The meeting brings together top business leaders, international political leaders, selected intellectuals and journalists to discuss the most pressing issues facing the world, including health and the environment.
  • Beside meetings, the foundation produces a series of research reports and engages its members in sector specific initiatives.
  • And they go skiing !!
the davos group or wef
The Davos Group or WEF
  • WEF is criticised by anti- globalisation campaigners
  • They say capitalism = inequality
  • Bono called it ‘fat cats in the snow’
  • Has no official status but attracts lots of publicity and Hollywood stars
5 the world bank
5. The World Bank

The World Bank is a vital source of financial and technical assistance to developing countries around the world. Our mission is to fight poverty with passion and professionalism for lasting results and to help people help themselves and their environment by providing resources, sharing knowledge, building capacity and forging partnerships in the public and private sectors.

We are not a bank in the common sense; we are made up of two unique development institutions owned by 187 member countries: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA).

Together, we provide low-interest loans, interest-free credits and grants to developing countries for a wide array of purposes that include investments in education, health, public administration, infrastructure, financial and private sector development, agriculture and environmental and natural resource management.

The World Bank, established in 1944, is headquartered in Washington, D.C. We have more than 10,000 employees in more than 100 offices worldwide.

world bank fact file
World Bank: Fact File

Formed in 1944

Its role is to be a bank to finance development.

Its first loan was to France for post war reconstruction.

1950’s –financing the development of ex colonies.

1970-80’s – financing projects for areas which

were environmentally damaged.

1990’s – focus was on debt.

Now – aims to achieve the millennium development goals.

what is the imf
What is the IMF?
  • The IMF (International Monetary Fund) formed in 1944
  • Stabilise currencies after WW2
  • Created by 44 rich countries to help those in debt
  • Intended to prevent poverty & so limit the spread of communism
  • In 2009 has 185 members

How does the IMF work?

Is it right that the BRIC nations have so little voting power?

  • Not all members are equal
  • The G20 have 70% of the votes
  • The USA has 17% of votes as the biggest investor
  • EU nations have 25% while BRICS have 9.7%
  • Most of the poorest African nations have 1% between them
IMF reflects US & EU interests

Used £ to promote fight against communism

But imposed conditions that led to LEDCs to have to cut health & education budgets so they could cut their debt

Why do some people think the IMF is a tool of economic Imperialism?


to facilitate the expansion and balanced growth of

international trade, and to contribute thereby to the promotion

and maintenance of high levels of employment

and real income and to the development of the productive

resources of all members as primary objectives of

economic policy.

  • Initially constructed to loan countries money who were at risk of communism.
  • They assist states that are experiencing major economic problems or require help in their development programmes
  • Determining how best to invest money is heavily influenced by the principles of capitalist theory. This is because capitalism is responsible for the economic growth of rich nations, therefore, IMF believe that implementing similar policies in developing countries will integrate them into the international economic order
  • They negotiate loans directly with member states
  • Try to stabilise countries that are faced with debt
  • Set up SAP’s – neo-colonialism? – make countries more competitive in global markets therefore attracting investment and economic growth. SAP’s imposed eg.Ghana
  • Fall to Japan in 1942 = caused major damage + USA feared communism
  • USA encouraged rebuilding through loans and investment
  • Economic recovery rapid = became an ‘Asian Tiger’
  • GDP – 1979 = 5.9 bn, 1989 = 27.5 bn, 1999 = 98 bn, 2007 = 153 bn
  • Suffered severe damage in WWII
  • Fears USSR would invade, so Allies encouraged recovery
  • Japanese gov. gained loans and grants from IMF
  • IMF investment led to rapid economic growth

Why might people protest against IGO meetings like the G8?


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQfqYy9Oci8 Government response to anti-IGO protests

plenary question
Plenary Question
  • Are IGOs a force for good or a method of Neo-colonialism?
  • How does membership of international governmental organisations give some countries political and economic power?
international decision making1
International decision making
  • Global decision making revolves around inter-governmental organisation (IGOs)
  • Some IGOs involve all nations, such as the U.N. – others are more exclusive such as the G8, or regional such as NATO.
  • Membership and voting rights may give key players disproportionate power.
  • Some influential organisations such as the World Economic Forum (Davos Group) are not-for-profit organisations outside government control.
  • IGOs do change over time; the G20 has become more influential in recent years, reflecting the increasing power of the BRICs