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Learning

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  1. Learning Operant Classical Cognitive

  2. Learning is … • A change in behavior that results from a previous experience • ( behavior can be observable or a thought)

  3. Factors that affect Learning(part of cognitive learning) • Feedback • - must be descriptive rather than evaluative, • timely, • welcome, • Useful • specific

  4. Attention • Focusing on the correct thing

  5. Practice • Doing something over and over again

  6. Mental Practice • Going over something in your mind

  7. Classical Conditioning A learning process in which something that had not previously produced a particular response (NS) becomes associated with something that produces the response(UCS).  As a result, the conditioned stimulus will elicit the response that the unconditioned stimulus produces.

  8. Classical Cond. examples 1)Learning to feel upset at the sight of flashing police lights in your rearview mirror 2)Learning to feel anxiety when you hear the sounds at the dentist’s office 3)Feeling tender emotions when you hear a song that was associated with your first romance

  9. Operant conditioning • Learning in which the consequence that follows a behavior increases or decreases the likelihood that the behavior happens again

  10. Cognitive Learning • Learning which involves mental processes such as attention and memory may be learned through observation or imitation • may not involve external rewards • (remember there are factors that affect this)

  11. What type of learning? Completing an algebra problem • Increased heart rate when going to the dentist • Getting hungry everyday at 12:00 • Leaving class when the bell rings • Showing up late for class, getting a detention and not showing up late again

  12. Classical Conditioning • What is it? • Have you been classically conditioned? • How can we classically condition someone? • Can you put it into the formula? • What are the important CC experiments?

  13. Neutral Stimulus • NS- (Neutral stimulus) something that causes a sensory response but doesn’t produce the reflex being tested

  14. Conditioned Stimulus • CS (Conditioned stimulus) formerly the NS that now has the ability to elicit (trigger) the response that was previously elicited (triggered) by the UCS

  15. Unconditioned stimulus • UCS (unconditioned stimulus) the stimulus that triggers or elicits a physiological response

  16. Conditioned Response • CR- the response that is elicited (triggered) by the CS This response is similar to the ucr

  17. Unconditioned Response • UCR- an unlearned involuntary physiological response that is elicited, or triggered by, the unconditioned stimulus

  18. Classical Conditioning Formula NS + UCS  UCR CS CR

  19. http://www.spike.com/video-clips/0jnov0/the-office-the-jim-trains-dwighthttp://www.spike.com/video-clips/0jnov0/the-office-the-jim-trains-dwight

  20. Put the mint experiment into the formula • Complete Review

  21. Pavlov’s experiment

  22. Pavlov’s dogs • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhqumfpxuzI&feature=related

  23. Generalization- a stimulus similar to the CS triggers a response similar to the CR • Discrimination- when an organism learns to make a response to some stim uli but not others • Extinction- when the conditioned response dies out

  24. Adaptive Value- usefulness of traits that increase the survival of humans or animals • Taste Aversion- associating a particular sensory cue with getting sick and therefore avoiding it in the future

  25. Baby Albert ( and Watson) The Little Albert Experim#E641A

  26. Copy these notes • SB- (Spontaneous behavior) a voluntary or non-reflexive action • C- (Consequence) positive or negative results of a behavior • R- (Response)- a unit of behavior • S- (stimulus) something in the environment that causes a response

  27. Operant Conditioning • Learning that takes place when a spontaneous behavior is reinforced or punished • Classical conditioning deals with reflexive, physiological behaviors

  28. What type of conditioning?

  29. a voluntary or non-reflexive action a unit of behavior positive or negative results of a behavior something in the environment that causes a response

  30. Operant conditioning in a formula • Spontaneous behavior->Consequence • Stimulus->Response

  31. Identify if it is a stimulus or a response • 1. _____ A flashing light • 2. _____ Answering this practice exercise • 3. _____ A stop sign • 4. _____ An ant crawling on your arm • 5. _____ Vomiting

  32. 6. _____ Coughing • 7. ____ Laughing • 8. ____ Screaming • 9. ____ A feather tickling your arm

  33. Put the following in the Operant Conditioning formula • Joe looked under the seat in a Dr’s office and found $100. Whenever he is in that office, he check under the seat cushions • Jim took out his packet without Mrs. Anderson asking him to. He received candy. When he goes into her room, he is always the first to have his packet out

  34. Thorndike’s law of Effect Thorndike’s Law of Effect • - behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened , while behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BDujDOLre-8

  35. Did we prove Thorndike’s Law of effect? • Explain. • Give another real life example to defend his Law of Effect

  36. Operant conditioning focus • Rather than looking at what comes before a behavior ( the antecedent) • We should look at what follows the behavior ( the consequence)

  37. Skinner’s Operant conditioning • Operant response - a meaningful unit of behavior that can be measured and is modified by its consequences

  38. What do you need to know for your quiz • SB/C/R/S- term matching • Be able to put things into the Operant conditioning formula • The difference between Operant and classical conditioning • The law of effect • The focus of Operant conditioning

  39. Shaping • - a procedure in which an experimenter successfully reinforces behaviors that lead up to or approximate the desired behavior ( the operant response) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I_ctJqjlrHA&NR=1

  40. Pigeons playing ping pong • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vGazyH6fQQ4

  41. Superstitious behavior • A behavior increases in frequency because it is accidentally paired with a reinforcer

  42. Reinforcement 1. A consequence occurs after a behavior and INCREASES the chance that the behavior will happen again

  43. Reward • Not the same thing as a reinforcer • Does not necessarily increase the chance that the behavior will happen again

  44. Reinforcer or reward • Joe hits a home run and gets a new bat ( his home run hitting does not increase) Jim is given candy in class for raising his hand- he raises his hand more often Helen falls out of her seat in class- everyone laughs. She does this everyday.

  45. Punishment • 3. Punishment • - consequence following the behavior decreases the likelihood that the behavior will happen again

  46. Write 3 scenarios • One where a person is being reinforced • One where a person is being rewarded • One where a person is being punished • Highlight the part of the scenario which shows if they are being rewarded, punished or reinforced

  47. Types of Reinforcers a. Primary - something such as food or water something innately satisfying b. Secondary - any stimulus that acquired it’s reinforcing power through experience ex. Stickers, grades, money

  48. Read page 221

  49. Schedules of Reinforcement • Schedules of reinforcement a. Continuous reinforcement every occurrence of the operant response results in delivery of the reinforcement