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“So that others may live”. Some Humor. MORE HUMOR. MORE HUMOR. Search & Rescue Operations. “Sharing the Airspace”. Brought To You By:. 301st Rescue Squadron. 39th Rescue Squadron. Orlando FSDO-15. Location. Col. Bruce E. Davis (Commander) 920th Rescue Group Patrick AFB Web Page:

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search rescue operations

Search & Rescue Operations

“Sharing the Airspace”

brought to you by

Brought To You By:

301st Rescue Squadron

39th Rescue Squadron

Orlando FSDO-15

location
Location

Col. Bruce E. Davis

(Commander)

920th Rescue Group

Patrick AFB

Web Page:

http//www.pafb.af.mil

FAA Safety Center

28th parallel

overview
Overview
  • Civilian SAR Operations
  • SARSAT
  • HC-130 and HH-60 “Blackhawk” SAR Ops
  • Space Shuttle Recovery (SRT) Ops.
  • Night Vision Goggles (NVG)
  • Pararescue (PJ) Procedures
  • Low-level flying in Florida
sar stages
SAR Stages
  • Awareness
  • Initial Actions
  • Planning
  • Operations
  • Mission conclusion
sar stages1
SAR Stages
  • Awareness
awareness
Awareness
  • Flight Service Station (FSS)
  • Air Traffic Control (ATC)
  • ELT/SARSAT
  • Dispatch Operations
  • Friends and Family
slide13

Flight Service Station (FSS)

  • After 30 minutes initial search begins:
    • FAA Flight plan route (most effective)
    • Phone search to FBO’s at destination and enroute airports.
    • Check phone numbers on the flight plan.
    • Coordinate with Air Traffic Control (ATC).
    • Contact Rescue Coordination Center (RCC) to start SAR procedures.
air traffic control atc
Air Traffic Control (ATC)
  • Radar/Comm. loss without pilot termination:
    • could be treated as a possible SAR emergency
    • cancel radar services when no longer needed.
slide15

Cospas-Sarsat

“Saving Lives Via Satellite”

slide17

Mission Control Center

(MCC)

U.S.

LUTs

U.S.

RCCs

Foreign

MCCs

USMCC

Suitland, MD

SPOCs

Foreign

LUTs

Foreign

MCCs

slide19

Polar Orbiting Satellites

  • Altitude ~ 600 miles
  • Orbital Period ~ 100min.
  • Speed ~ 15000 mph.
  • Doppler shift
  • SARSAT Satellites:
  • 121.5 MHz Repeater
  • 243 MHz Repeater
  • 406 MHz Processor
  • COSPAS Satellites
  • 121.5 MHz Repeater
  • 406 MHz Processor
geostationary satellites
Geostationary Satellites
  • No Doppler Processing
  • Immediate Alerts
  • 406 MHz Only
  • Immediate Alerting and Locating Possible with Location Protocol Beacons
slide21

8 min. 6 min. 1 min. 1 min.

90 min. 10 min. 10 min. 1 min.

Cospas-Sarsat Rescue Timeline

LUT

MCC

RCC

Satellite

Beacon

Best Case

16 min.

Worst Case

112 min.

locator beacon types
Locator Beacon Types

PLB

(Personal Locator Beacon)

  • 406 Mhz Only
  • Portable/manual

EPIRB

(Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon)

  • 121.5/406.0 MHz
  • 406 MHz (6 hours)
  • Phase out 121.5 Mhz

ELT

(Emergency Locator Beacon)

  • 121.5 /406 Mhz
  • Fail rate 75%
  • False alarm rate 97%
slide26

Range of Beacons

121.5 MHz ELT

12 nm radius

452 sq. nm search area

ave. 6 hour notification

406 MHz ELT

2 nm radius

12.5 sq. nm search area

ave. 1 hour notification

406 MHz ELT w/ GPS

0.05 nm radius

0.008 sq. nm search area

est. 5 min. notification

elt operations
ELT Operations
  • Testing
    • Avionics shop
    • Aircraft operational test
      • 121.5/243.0
      • First five minutes after any hour, 3 audible sweeps
      • airborne test not authorized
  • False alarms
    • monitor 121.5 on comm reciever
      • after shutdown, in flight, mx action, hard landing
  • Inflight monitoring (ELT signal first heard)
      • note position, time, altitude, nearest nav-aid
slide28

Friends and Family

An Air Force review of 325 SAR missions found that time works against people who experience a distress and are not on a flight plan, since 36 hours normally pass before a family member initiates an alert

Hello, “Big AL’s” insurance. Is my husbands insurance premium up to date ?

slide29

“The life expectancy of an injured survivor decreases as much as 80 percent during the first 24 hours, while the chances of survival of uninjured survivors rapidly diminishes after the first 3 days”

  • File descriptive and accurate flight plans
  • Be sure to open and close flight plan.
  • Have good contact phone numbers
  • Let people know where you are going.
sar stages2
SAR Stages
  • Awareness
  • Initial Actions
initial actions
Initial Actions
  • Coordinate the following SAR assets:
    • Civil Air Patrol (CAP)
    • U. S. Coast Guard
    • Coast Guard Auxiliary
    • Local law enforcement
    • Private Volunteer Organizations
    • U.S. Air Force Search and Rescue Units
sar assets
SAR Assets

SAR Coordinator (SC)

Rescue Coordination Center (RCC)

sar stages3
SAR Stages
  • Awareness
  • Initial Actions
  • Planning
planning
Planning
  • Flight Plan/ Route of Flight
    • Rescue scenario:
      • General aviation flight from Homestead to Key West International.
    • Example of bad FAA flight plan.
    • Example of good FAA flight plan.
route intended
Route (intended)

Homestead

Key West

bad faa flight plan
Bad FAA Flight Plan
  • No flight plan filed
  • No route of flight
  • No contact numbers

x

Homestead

N1234

PA28/A

110

1200

3000

Direct

EYW

2

30

3

30

2

White

route actual vs filed
Route (actual vs. filed)

Filed Bad Flight Plan

Actual Route Flown

good faa flight plan
Good FAA Flight Plan
  • Good contact phone numbers
  • Accurate time estimates
  • Flight plan for each leg (for long cross countries)
  • Descriptive points for each changes of courses

x

N1234

PA-28/A

110

Homestead

2000

1200

Ocean Reef Club - Islemorada - Marathon Key - Summer Land Key

2 Orange life preservers, Orange life raft, flares

Key West

2

30

Dr. Evil, 555-1212, DAB

Key Marathon

3

30

2

James Bond, 007-3838

White/red trim

route actual vs filed1
Route (actual vs. filed)

Distressed Aircraft Position

Filed/Actual Route Flown

sar stages4
SAR Stages
  • Awareness
  • Initial Actions
  • Planning
  • Operations
operations
Operations
  • HC-130 Search patterns
    • Parallel Search
    • Route Search
    • Sector Search
    • Expanding square Search
  • Target detection
  • Signaling methods
  • Rescue/medical assistance
search patterns parallel search
Search patterns(Parallel search)

Last Known Position (LKP)

Filed Flight Plan

search patterns route search
Search patterns(Route search)

Last Known Position(LKP)

Filed Flight Plan

search patterns sector search
Search patterns(Sector search)

Last Known Position(LKP)

Filed Flight Plan

Radius

20 - 30Nm

search patterns expanding square search
Search patterns(Expanding square search)

Last Known Position(LKP)

Filed Flight Plan

target detectability
Target detectability

Size, shape

distance

Target Motion

Duration of

exposure

Contrast

probability of detection
Probability of detection

(Search performed at 500’)

Flat terrain

Trees and Hills

signaling methods
Signaling methods
  • Electronic means (ELT, Hand held radio, GPS, aircraft radio)
  • Visual means (hand signals, smoke, flares, terrain, mirror, aircraft)
  • Refer to AIM Section 6-2 for other signals
sar stages5
SAR Stages
  • Awareness
  • Initial Actions
  • Planning
  • Operations
  • Mission conclusion
mission conclusion
Mission conclusion
  • Team Effort
  • “You” play an active role in the rescue process.