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Ch. 17 & 18 “Biological Communities & The Environment

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Ch. 17 & 18 “Biological Communities & The Environment . I. How Organisms Interact in Communities. A. Coevolution –back and forth evolutionary adjustments between interacting members of an ecosystem. Ex: plants and the animals who pollinate them.

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i how organisms interact in communities
I. How Organisms Interact in Communities
  • A. Coevolution–back and forth evolutionary adjustments between interacting members of an ecosystem. Ex: plants and the animals who pollinate them.

B. Predation-act of one organism killing another for food. Ex: Lion eating zebras, snakes eating mice

    • 1. plant defenses against animals include thorns, spines, prickles, and chemicals.

C. Symbiosis-two or more species live together in a close relationship.

    • 1. Parasitism-symbiosis that is harmful to the host organism. Ex: tapeworm in a dog or tick on a human.

2. Mutualism-symbiotic relationship in which both participating species benefit. Ex: Ant on acacia tree


3. Commensalism-symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other is neither harmed or helped. Ex: Clown fish that lives in the sea anemone.

ii how competition shapes communities
II. How Competition Shapes Communities
  • A. Competition-when two species use the same resources. Species compete for resources such as food, nesting site, living space, light, minerals, water.
  • B. Niche-how an organism lives; its way of life.
  • C. Biodiversity-the variety of living organisms in a community.
iii major biological communitites
III. Major Biological Communitites
  • A. Climate-the weather conditions in any given area. This determines where species live. The two most important elements of climate are temperature and moisture. The farther away from the equator, temperature and moisture decrease; closer to the equator, temperature and moisture increase.
  • B. Biome-a major biological community that occurs over a large area of land.
iv global change
IV. Global Change
  • A. Acid Rain-caused by airborne pollutants that lover the pH of the rain. Thousands of lakes are “dying” due to low pH levels and forests are being destroyed.

B. Ozone layer-being destroyed by chemical called CFC’s.

  • C. Greenhouse Effect-caused by gases such as CO2 that trap heat in the earth’s atmosphere.
  • D. Global Warming-overall increase in earth’s temperature.
v effects on ecosystem
V. Effects on Ecosystem
  • A. Biological Magnification-the accumulation of increasingly large amounts of toxic chemicals within each level of the food chain.
  • B. Three non-replaceable resources are being consumed or destroyed at a rapid rate:
      • 1. species of living things
      • 2. topsoil
      • 3. ground water
      • C. Rapid growth of the human population places stress on the Earth’s ecosystem.
vi solving environmental problems
VI. Solving Environmental Problems
  • A. Methods to reduce pollution include laws and stricter standards, taxes on polluters and education of the public.
  • B. Each individual can help by recycling, using alternative means of transportation, help educate people.