Class 2: Wednesday, June 5 2013. COH603: Public Health Biology. Today’s Topics. Health and: The Built Environment Socio-Economic Status Racial Disparities. The Built Environment and Health. T he physical structures and infrastructure of communities Environmental Health
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Class 2: Wednesday, June 5 2013 COH603: Public Health Biology
Today’s Topics • Health and: • The Built Environment • Socio-Economic Status • Racial Disparities
The Built Environment and Health • The physical structures and infrastructure of communities • Environmental Health • The connection between environment and human exposure to contaminated air, water, and soil. • Decisions about land use, zoning, and community design influence the degree of human exposure to toxins, but also have implications for neighborhood access to healthy foods, and the level of safety and attractiveness of neighborhoods for activities such as walking and biking.
The Built Environment and Health • The built environment is simply the sum total of what we design and construct in the places where we live, work, go to school, and play • This ranges from the micro—such as a single apartment complex—to the macro, as in the case of a master planned community or blueprints for guiding regional development through transportation and infrastructure decisions.
City Planning and Health • The creation and modification of the built environment encompass a complex web of professions and disciplines and incorporate designs and policy decisions that affect the lives of all community members in both negative and positive ways.
Factors to consider • Traffic, noise, and air quality are among the most negative impacts of poorly planned or executed development • Parks and open space, creative architecture and convenient access to public transit are a few of the obviously positive features.
Health in our Communities • These health issues are directly or indirectly associated with factors in our environment • the auto emissions from freeways located adjacent to schools and homes • lack of facilities and space for physical activity • lack of access to healthy foods • proliferation of fast food, convenience stores and liquor stores
In California • Tens of billions of dollars of public funds will be spent on infrastructure • highways, local streets, transit, schools, parks, and water systems— • More than $40 billion in the most recent group of state bond issues and more than $100 billion overall when local measures are added. • Amuch larger sum will be spent over the next two decades rebuilding or creating a large proportion of the state’s housing and commercial and industrial buildings.
Climate Change • The causes and consequences of global climate change demand a need for energy conservation and “green” construction. • Attention to climate change issues can be a powerful force for change and can be closely linked to issues of community health.
How will we continue to build? • The overarching challenge is to utilize this opportunities to shape the built environment of California. • Will we promote good healthor impede it?
What can we do? • Designing, building and redeveloping communities so that they are compact, accessible to transit, pedestrian oriented, and supportive of mixed uses. • Design that provides increased opportunity for physical activity and promotes walkability
The Built Environment and SES/Race • Historically, low-income residents of color have faced discriminatory treatment in housing, transportation, and other land use policies and have endured the health disparities that result from limited access to care and overexposure to risks.
We have a choice! • The built environment can either compound these inequities or provide a unique opportunity to redress structural barriers. • Must address SES and racial barriers • The legacy of discrimination includes patterns of segregation and isolation that make equitable development more complicated.
SES and Built Environment • Low-income communities and communities of color typically need remedial land use efforts to overcome environmental injustices • revitalization is usually constrained by a lack of space and capital resources. • Master planned communities and new suburban development are designed prospectively and holistically, usually with more land for parks and incresed walkability
San Ysidro • The total estimated population is 28,481. Density is average at 5,552 persons per square mile. http://verylocaldata.com
San Ysidro • The median household income is $27,943 in 1999 dollars. Median Household Income Poverty Level
San Ysidro • Transportation to Work
San Ysidro • Work
Walkability of San Ysidro • San Ysidro is the 93rd most walkable neighborhood in San Diego • Walk Score: 44 • Transit Score: 50 • Bike Score: 44 • Dense urban area, high traffic conditions
Walkability – The Walk Score • 90–100 Walker's Paradise • Daily errands do not require a car. • 70–89 Very Walkable • Most errands can be accomplished on foot. • 50–69 Somewhat Walkable • Some errands can be accomplished on foot. • 25–49 Car-Dependent • Most errands require a car. • 0–24 Car-Dependent • Almost all errands require a car. • http://www.walkscore.com
Coronado • The total estimated population is 24,085. Density is average at 3,313 persons per square mile.
Coronado • The median household income is $66,489 in 1999 dollars. Median Household Income Poverty Level
Coronado • Transportation to Work
Coronado • Work
Walkability of Coronado • Coronado is considered a “Walker’s Paradise • Walk score: 95 • People in walkable neighborhoods weigh 6-10 lbs less. • Walkable places make you happier and healthier. • Short commutes reduce stress and increase community involvement.
National City • The total estimated population is 62,335. Density is high at 7,782 persons per square mile.
National City • The median household income is $29,942 in 1999 dollars. Median Household Income Poverty Level
National City • Transportation to work
National City • Work
Walkability of National City • Walkability Score: 66 • Somewhat walkable • Dense population, considerably more urban and heavier traffic load than other areas in SD
El Cajon • The total estimated population is 158,115. Density is low at 2,309 persons per square mile.
El Cajon • The median household income is $44,606 in 1999 dollars. Median Household Income Poverty Level
El Cajon • Transportation to Work
El Cajon • Work
Walkability of El Cajon • Walk Score: 61 • Somewhat walkable • Less dense area allows for greater walkability in suburban setting away from highways and heavy traffic streets
Poway • The total estimated population is 47,957. Density is low at 1,057 persons per square mile.
Poway • The median household income is $71,385 in 1999 dollars. Median Household Income Poverty Level
Poway • Transportation
Poway • Work
Walkability of Poway • Walk Score: 42 • Most errands require a car • Does not take into consideration the density of parks and sidewalks available away from highway • lack of industrialization, suburban community
North Region of San Diego • Chronic disease death rates and percentage have decreased in the North Coastal Region and its Subregional Areas (SRAs) from 2000 to 2010. • Among the North Coastal SRAs, Oceanside had the highest percentage and rate of deaths due to chronic disease in 2010. • Chronic diseases accounted for 55% of all deaths in the North Coastal Region in 2010.