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7-2 How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Locations of Biomes?. Concept 7-2 Differences in average annual precipitation and temperature lead to the formation of tropical, temperate, and cold deserts, grasslands, and forests, and largely determine their locations.

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7 2 how does climate affect the nature and locations of biomes
7-2 How Does Climate Affect the Nature and Locations of Biomes?
  • Concept 7-2 Differences in average annual precipitation and temperature lead to the formation of tropical, temperate, and cold deserts, grasslands, and forests, and largely determine their locations.
climate affects where organisms can live
Climate Affects Where Organisms Can Live
  • Biomes characterized by having similar:
    • Climate
      • Precipitation
      • Temperature
    • Soil
    • Plants
    • Animal
  • Latitude and elevation
  • Biomes are mosaics of patches
  • Do not have distinct boundaries (ecotone)
biome deciduous forest
Biome: Deciduous Forest
  • Climate
    • Temperature: Temperate & Tropical
    • Precipitation: 75 – 250 cm per year
  • Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations:
    • Hardwood (Deciduous) Trees
      • Loose leaves in winter to conserve energy
biome deciduous forest1
Biome: Deciduous Forest
  • Major Locations
    • North America, Europe, Australia, and Eastern Asia
  • Characteristic Fauna
    • Black bear, white-tail deer, squirrels, raccoons, opossums
biome deciduous forest2
Biome: Deciduous Forest
  • Soil Characteristics
    • Very rich soil with high organic content
  • Other Important Facts
    • Slow decomposition rates in the forest lead to high soil quality
biome tropical rainforest
Biome: Tropical Rainforest
  • Climate
    • Temperature: Tropical
    • Precipitation: 200 – 400 cm per year
  • Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations:
    • Broadleaf Evergreen trees
      • Large leaves to catch rare sunlight
    • Vines, epiphytes
      • Get moisture from the air, roots not in ground
    • All plants adapted to LOW light
biome tropical rainforest1
Biome: Tropical Rainforest
  • Major Locations
    • South America, West Africa, Southeast Asia
  • Characteristic Fauna
    • Monkeys, insects, amphibians, tropical birds
biome tropical rainforest2
Biome: Tropical Rainforest
  • Soil Characteristics
    • POOR soil due to rapid rate of decomposition
  • Other Important Facts
    • Stratification provides niches for specialized species – leads to high biodiversity
biome grasslands
Biome: Grasslands
  • Climate
    • Temperature: Tropical & Temperate
    • Precipitation: 10 – 60 cm per year
  • Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations:
    • Sod-forming grasses which are adapted to fire
      • Grasses store most of their biomass in the roots, this ensures their recovery after a fire, and after grazers have eaten their tops
biome grasslands1
Biome: Grasslands
  • Major Locations
    • North American plains (prairies), Russia (steppes), South Africa (velds), Argentina (pampas), Africa (savanna)
  • Characteristic Fauna
    • Grazers & Browsers
biome grasslands2
Biome: Grasslands
  • Soil Characteristics
    • Rich Soil
      • Has made the grasslands prime for human interference by agriculture
  • Other Important Facts
    • Fire adapted
    • Large animals
biome taiga boreal or coniferous forest
Biome: Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest)
  • Climate
    • Temperature: Cold
    • Precipitation: 20- 60 cm (mostly in summer)
  • Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations:
    • Coniferous evergreens
      • Small needle-shaped leaves with waxy coating to help conserve energy loss. Stay green all year because of relatively low solar intensity year-round
biome taiga boreal or coniferous forest1
Biome: Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest)
  • Major Locations
    • Northern North America (Canada), Northern Eurasia
  • Characteristic Fauna
    • Bears, wolves, moose, lynx, and burrowing rodents
biome taiga boreal or coniferous forest2
Biome: Taiga (Boreal or Coniferous Forest)
  • Soil Characteristics
    • Soil is thin and nutrient poor because of the acidic tannins in pine needles
  • Other Important Facts
      • California’s Giant Redwoods (Sequoias)
biome tundra
Biome: Tundra
  • Climate
    • Temperature: Cold (grassland)
    • Precipitation: Less than 25 cm
  • Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations:
    • Herbaceous plants
      • Low-growing plants,dwarf shrubs,lichens
biome tundra1
Biome: Tundra
  • Major Locations
    • Northern latitudes of North America, Europe and northern Eurasia
  • Characteristic Fauna
    • Caribou (reindeer), migratory waterfowl, arctic wolf, arctic fox, musk oxen, snowy owl
biome tundra2
Biome: Tundra
  • Soil Characteristics
    • Permafrost!!
    • Very thin, fragile soil
  • Other Important Facts
    • Most annual growth occurs in the 7-8 week long summer
    • Melting permafrost releases CH4 and CO2: both greenhouse gasses!!
biome chaparral scrub shrub forest
Biome: Chaparral (Scrub/Shrub Forest)
  • Climate
    • Temperature: Temperate
    • Precipitation: 50 – 75 cm (mostly in winter)
  • Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations:
    • Small trees with large hard leaves, spiny shrubs, adapted to fire
      • Burn easily
      • Seeds germinate when exposed to hot fire
biome chaparral scrub shrub forest1
Biome: Chaparral (Scrub/Shrub Forest)
  • Major Locations
    • Western North America, the Mediterranean
  • Characteristic Fauna
    • Mule deer, chipmunks, jackrabbits, lizards, variety of birds
biome chaparral scrub shrub forest2
Biome: Chaparral (Scrub/Shrub Forest)
  • Soil Characteristics
    • Shallow and infertile soil
  • Other Important Facts
    • Prone to fire in dry season
    • Desirable climate w/ risks!
biome deserts hot cold
Biome: Deserts (Hot & Cold)
  • Climate
    • Temperature: Tropical, Temperate, Cold
    • Precipitation: Less than 25 cm
  • Dominant Vegetation & Adaptations:
    • Cactus and other low-water adapted plants (Succulents)
biome deserts hot cold1
Biome: Deserts (Hot & Cold)
  • Major Locations
    • 30 North and South of the Equator
  • Characteristic Fauna
    • Camels, reptiles, rodents (kangaroo rat – never drinks water)
biome deserts hot cold2
Biome: Deserts (Hot & Cold)
  • Soil Characteristics
    • Coarse texture (sandy)
      • not good at holding moisture or nutrients
  • Other Important Facts
    • Fragile ecosystem due to
      • Slow plant growth
      • Low species diversity
      • Slow nutrient recycling
      • Lack of water
biome review
Biome review!
  • What are some of the traits that are similar between biomes of the same type?
  • What is an ecotone?
  • Which type of grassland is found in Africa?
  • Which type of desert is found in Mongolia?
  • Why is Antarctica not considered a part of a biome?
  • Which biome do we live in?
  • What is stratification? Where do we see it?
  • If I hiked up a mountain, tell me what changes in vegetation I would experience.
  • Why do pine trees have needle shaped leaves?
  • Why do rainforest trees have broad-leaves?
  • Why do deciduous trees lose their leaves?
  • Explain how grasses are adapted to their environment.