Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies 1619-1700. The Settlement of New England. Separatists. vs. . Puritans. Puritanism. Calvinism Institutes of the Christian Religion Predestination. Good works could not save those predestined for hell.
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The Settlement of New England
Separatists vs. Puritans
Puritanism • Calvinism Institutes of the Christian Religion • Predestination. • Good works could not save those predestined for hell. • No one could be certain of their spiritual status. • Gnawing doubts led to constantly seeking signs of “conversion.” • Puritans: • Want to totally reform [purify] the Church of England. • Grew impatient with the slow process of Protestant Reformation back in England.
Separatists • Separatist Beliefs: • Puritans who believed only “visible saints” [those who could demonstrate in front of their fellow Puritans their elect status] should be admitted to church membership. • Because the Church of England enrolled all the king’s subjects, Separatists felt they had to share churches with the “damned.” • Therefore, they believed in a total break from the Church of England.
James I (1603 - 1625) • James I was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots. He had become James VI of Scotland after Mary lost her head, and he became James I when he took over England. • He was the first to call himself "King of Great Britain." James struggled with Parliament - he thought he ruled by divine right. • There was a new English translation of Bible - the "King James Bible.“ • He persecuted Pilgrims because they would not recognize him as the religious leader of the Church of England. • So, they became a political risk as well.
The Mayflower • 1620 a group of 102 people [half Separatists] • Negotiated with theVirginia Company to settle in its jurisdiction. • Non-Separatists included Captain Myles Standish. • Plymouth Bay way outside the domain of the Virginia Company. • Became squatters without legal right to land & specific authority to establish a govt.
MAYFLOWER COMPACT • 41 Male passengers on the Mayflower formed into a “civil body politic”, signed a compact promising to write and obey "just and equal laws ... for the general good of the colony." • The compact brought an element of democracy to America and was an example of the practice of self-government in the colonies. • All the colonies practiced some form of self-government…………
The Mayflower CompactNovember 11, 1620 • Written and signed before the Pilgrims disembarked from the ship. • Not a constitution, but an agreement to form a crude govt. and submit to majority rule. • Signed by 41 adult males. • Led to adult male settlers meeting in assemblies to make laws in town meetings.
PILGRIMS • Difficult winter (44 out of 102 survived)…. • First year went through a “starving time” • Developed friendly relations with Indian tribes • Squanto befriended settlement • Plymouth settlement survived under the leadership of Gov. William Bradford • First Thanksgiving
That First Year…. • Winter of 1620-1621 • Only 44 out of the original 102 survived. • None chose to leave in 1621 when the Mayflower sailed back. • Fall of 1621 First “Thanksgiving.” • Colony survived with fur [especially beaver], fish, and lumber. • Plymouth stayed small and economically unimportant. • 1691 only 7,000 people • Merged with Massachusetts Bay Colony.
William Bradford Self-taught scholar. Chosen governor of Plymouth 30 times in yearly elections. Worried about settlements of non-Puritans springing up nearby and corrupting Puritan society. A Model of Christian Charity
PILGRIMS Pilgrims merge with the Puritans to form Massachusetts Bay Colony
Charles I (1625 - 1649) • Son of James I and ruled by divine right. • Conflicts with Parliament = much resistance to his policies. • Forced to sign the Petition of Right • no taxes without Parliament’s consent; • civilians didn't have to house soldiers; • no military law in peacetime • Due process of law • In 1629, Charles dissolved Parliament and ruled until 1640. • Persecuted Puritans led to the Puritan Migration. • 1642–1651: English Civil Wars, "Cavaliers" (Anglicans, royalists, nobility, Catholics) vs. the "Roundheads" (Puritans and Middle Class). • Charles I was beheaded in 1649-------Oliver Cromwell became Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth.
The MA Bay Colony • 1629 non-Separatists got a royal charter to form the MA Bay Co. • Wanted to escape attacks by conservatives in the Church of England. • They didn’t want to leave the Church, just its “impurities.” • 1630 1,000 people set off in 11 well-stocked ships • Established a colony with Boston as its hub. • “Great Migration” of the 1630s • Turmoil in England [leading to the English Civil War] sent about 70,000 Puritans to America. • Not all Puritans 20,000 came to MA.
PURITAN MIGRATION 1629 to 1640
PURITANS • Pilgrims merge with the Puritans to form Massachusetts Bay Colony • Communities well organized • Established towns • Protestant Work Ethic • Family values
John Winthrop • Well-off attorney and manor lord in England. • Became 1st governor of Massachusetts. • Believed that he had a “calling” from God to lead there. • Served as governor or deputy-governor for 19 years. We shall be as a city on a hill..
PURITANS • John Winthrop, founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony • Middle class settlers, educated and organized • Successful as fur traders, fishermen and shipbuilders • Ruled as “Bible Commonwealth” or theocracy • New England Way = Puritan covenant with God • To establish holy society----”city upon a hill”
Covenant Theology • “Covenant of Grace”: • between Puritan communities and God. • “Social Covenant”: • Between members of Puritan communities with each other. • Required mutual watchfulness. • No toleration of deviance or disorder. • No privacy.
Patriarchy Authoritarian male father figures controlled each household. Patriarchal ministers and magistrates controlled church congregations and household patriarchs.
Building the Bay Colony • Franchise (right to vote) extended to “freemen” – adult Puritan men of Congregational church (about 40% of men in the colony ~ higher percentage than in England) • However, in town government, all property-owning males could vote in town meetings • Direct democracy----self government • Since idea of government was to enforce God’s laws, religious leaders (e.g. John Cotton) were very influential
Building the Bay Colony • Clergy were barred from formal political office – early “church/state separation” • Puritan ideas: “calling” to God’s work, Protestant work ethic, limited worldly pleasures, fear of hell
Trouble in Bible Colony(Puritan Rebels) • Social harmony when only Puritans, but that didn’t last • Quakers: fines, floggings, banishments, executions • Anne Hutchinson: truly saved don’t need to obey (“antinomianism” the theological doctrine that by faith and God's grace a Christian is freed from all laws (including the moral standards of the culture) • Banished from Mass. Bay • Travels to Rhode Island with her children and helps organize this settlement
Anne Hutchinson’s Trial • 1638 she confounded the Puritan leaders for days. • Eventually bragged that she had received her beliefs DIRECTLY from God. • Direct revelation was even more serious than the heresy of antinomianism. WHY?? • Puritan leaders banished her she & her family traveled to RI and later to NY. • She and all but one member of her family were killed in an Indian attack in Westchester County. • John Winthrop saw God’s hand in this!
Puritan “Rebels” • Young, popular minister in Salem. • Argued for a full break with the Anglican Church. • Condemned MA Bay Charter. • Did not give fair compensation to Indians. • Denied authority of civil govt. to regulate religious behavior. • 1635 found guilty of preaching new & dangerous opinions and was exiled. Roger Williams
Rhode Island • 1636 Roger Williams fled there. • MA Bay Puritans had wanted to exile him to England to prevent him from founding a competing colony. • Remarkable political freedom in Providence, RI • Universal manhood suffrage later restricted by a property qualification. • Opposed to special privilege of any kind freedom of opportunity for all. • RI becomes known as the “Sewer” because it is seen by the Puritans as a dumping ground for unbelievers and religious dissenters More liberal than any other colony!
New England Spreads Out • 1635: Hartford (Conn.) founded by Dutch/English settlers. Some Puritans moved westward to Connecticut with Rev. Thomas Hooker • 1639: Fundamental Orders – modern constitution established democratic government • 1641: New Hampshire taken over by overly aggressive Bay Colony • 1679: Annoyed by greed of Bay Colony, king arbitrarily separates it, becomes royal colony
Characteristics of New England Settlements • Low mortality average life expectancy was 70 years of age. • Many extended families. • Average 6 children per family. • Average age at marriage: • Women – 22 years old • Men – 27 years old.
New England • good harbors • small farms and towns • trade centered around harbors • hilly, forested and shallow soil • cities: Boston • 15,000 – 1750 • fishing, lumber and trapping • Family, religion and community • Massachusetts • New Hampshire • Rhode Island • Connecticut
Puritans vs. Native Americans • Indians especially weak in New England epidemics wiped out ¾ of the native popul. • Wampanoags [near Plymouth] befriended the settlers. • Cooperation between the two helped by Squanto. • 1621 Chief Massasoit signedtreaty with the settlers. • Autumn, 1621 both groups celebrated the First Thanksgiving.
The Pequot Wars: 1636-1637 • Pequots verypowerful tribein CT river valley. • 1637 PequotWar • Whites, withNarragansettIndian allies,attacked Pequotvillage on Mystic River. • Whites set fire to homes & shot fleeing survivors! • Pequot tribe virtually annihilated an uneasy peace lasted for 40 years.
King Philip’s War (1675-1676} • Only hope for Native Americans to resist white settlers was to UNITE. • Metacom [King Philip to white settlers] • Massasoit’s son united Indians and staged coordinated attacks on white settlements throughout New England. • Frontier settlements forced to retreat to Boston.
KING PHILIP'S WAR Massasoit’s son, Metacom (King Phillip) formed Indian alliance – attacked throughout New England, especially frontier English towns were attacked and burned -unknown numbers of Indians died 1676: War ended, Metacom executed, lasting defeat for Indians
Charles II was the son of Charles I. • Because his father had been killed, Charles II had the ravens caged so they couldn't leave. • He was a "Merry Monarch," a very popular king. • Charles II encouraged religious toleration. • The “Restoration Colonies” were settled during his reign. Charles II (1660 - 1685)
DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND • Goal: • Bring colonies under England’s rule • Defend colonies from French & Indians • Stop colonial smuggling • Sir Edmund Andros, King’s • Representative restricted • colonies: • Town meetings, the press, & schools • Revoked land titles • Taxed without consent of the governed • Collapses after Glorious • Revolution Forced by King James I All NE Colonies, NJ & NY
CHART: THIRTEEN COLONIES Colony/DatePerson ResponsibleWhy FoundedGoverned/Owner
James II was Charles' son, a Catholic. • He had a Protestant daughter, Mary, and a Catholic son. • Parliament didn't want his son taking over, so they gave the crown to Mary and her husband, William III of Orange. James II(1685 - 1688)
This was known as the "Glorious Revolution." (Revolution because they overthrew the last Catholic monarch, Glorious because no one died.) • Parliament put more restrictions on the monarch. • The king couldn't make or suspend laws, have an army during peacetime, and the king couldn't interfere with freedom of speech in Parliament. • English Bill of Rights
Chart 13a CHART: THIRTEEN COLONIES Colony/DatePerson ResponsibleWhy FoundedGoverned/Owner
Old Netherlanders at New Netherlands • 1600s Golden Age of Dutch history. • Major commercial and naval power. • Challenging England on the seas. • 3 major Anglo-Dutch Wars • Major colonial power [mainly in the East Indies].
New Netherland (New York) • 1609: Henry Hudson sailing for Dutch East India Company sails into Hudson river looking for passage through continent ~ claims area for Dutch • 1623-24: Dutch West India Company establishes New Netherland • Goal: quick-profit fur trade • “Bought” Manhattan from Indians • Company town: no religious tolerance or free speech, harsh governors
New Netherland • Colony had aristocratic influence (a member of a ruling class or of the nobility) with large feudal estates (“patroonships” – one larger than Rhode Island) • Very diverse population: in 1640s missionary observed 18 languages
New Netherlands • New Netherlands founded in the Hudson River area (1623-1624) • Established by Dutch West India Company for quick-profit fur trade. • Company wouldn’t pay much attention to the colony. • Manhattan [New Amsterdam] • Purchased by Company for pennies per (22,000) acre.
New Amsterdam Harbor, 1639 Company town run in interests of the stockholders. No interest in religious toleration, free speech, or democracy. Governors appointed by the Company were autocratic. Religious dissenters against Dutch Reformed Church [including Quakers] were persecuted. Local assembly with limited power to make laws established after repeated protests by colonists.
New Amsterdam, 1660 • Characteristics of New Amsterdam: • Aristocratic patroonships [feudal estates granted to promoters who would settle 50 people on them]. • Cosmopolitan diverse population with many different languages.