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Settling the Northern Colonies

Settling the Northern Colonies

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Settling the Northern Colonies

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  1. Settling the Northern Colonies 1619 – 1700

  2. Religion • 1517 – Protestant reformation • 1536 – John Calvin --- Calvinism • The elect • Predestination • Conversion • Visible saints • Puritans v. Separatists

  3. Pilgrims & the Mayflower • 1620 – Pilgrims/Mayflower> Plymouth • Less than ½ were actually Puritans • Squatters – no charter, suppose to settle in Virginia • Mayflower Compact (1620) • town meetings • Simple agreement to form a crude government & submit to the will of majority

  4. Plymouth • 1st Thanksgiving (1621) • Plentiful harvest/ Wampanoag Indians • William Bradford – Governor (reelected 30x) • Afraid that non-Puritans would corrupt his godly experiment • Never important politically or economically

  5. Massachusetts Bay Colony John Winthrop – Governor for 19 years calling from God Purposed of government was to enforce God’s laws Model society for humankind General court Protestant ethic – work! “Day of Doom” Persecution of Quakers “We shall be as a city upon a hill.” Great Puritan Migration - 1630

  6. Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630) • Franchise granted to all “freemen”- adult males who belonged to Puritan congregations • Town government – all male property holders/ majority rule • Believers & non-believers paid taxes to support church

  7. Puritans • Separation of church and state – clergy could not hold political office • Could hire & fire ministers and set their salaries • Enjoyed earthly pleasures

  8. Extreme separatist Condemned colony for taking Indian land without compensation (Mass. Bay Colony) 1st Baptist church in America Denied the authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior Banished Fled to Rhode Island (1636)- with help of Indians Roger Williams - 1635

  9. Established by Roger Williams Freedom of religion No oaths or taxes to support a church Simple manhood suffrage Strongly individualistic/ stubbornly independent Many religious dissenters Rhode Island -- 1636

  10. Anne Hutchinson - 1638 • Banished for heresy from Mass. Bay Colony • Belief – a holy life was no sure sign of salvation • Moved to Rhode Island • Antinomianism – belief that those whom God had marked for salvation need not obey secular laws

  11. Connecticut Colony (1635) • Highly fertile land • Thomas Hooker -leader • Fundamental Orders (1639) (constitution) • 1638 – New Haven established – no charter • Merged with Connecticut under Charles II’s orders

  12. New Hampshire (1679) • Granite rich area • Separated from Mass. Bay Colony under King’s orders • Massachusetts Bay colony exaggerated the charter to include New Hampshire • King split colonies into royal colonies

  13. Puritans versus Indians • King Philip’s War (1675-1676) • King Philip (Metacom) launched attacks on English villages • Slowed westward march of English settlement in New England • Lasting defeat of New England’s Indians • Last serious Indian challenge to white settlement

  14. New England Confederation (1643) • 4 colonies banded together “Puritan Club” • Mass Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, & New Haven • Defense against the Indians, the French, & the Dutch • Settled intercolonial problems • First milestone on road to colonial unity

  15. Monarch • 1660- Charles II restored to English throne • End of “Benign Neglect” • Took an active, aggressive hand in the management of the colonies flexing his muscles

  16. Dominion of New England(1686) • Created by royal authority • Purpose: colonial defense & administration of the English Navigation Laws • stop trade with countries not ruled by English crown • Smuggling began

  17. Sir Edmund Andros • Led Dominion of New England • authoritarian rule • Stopped town meetings • Heavy restrictions on courts, press, & school • Revoked all land titles • Tax without consent • Suppress smuggling & enforce Navigation Laws • Dominion collapsed with the Glorious Revolution (1688-1689) –William & Mary come to throne

  18. New York • 1623-24 – New Netherlands established by the Dutch West India Company • Fur trade along Hudson River valley • New Amsterdam (NYC) protected from Indian attacks by a wall • Aristocratic/Patroonships – received estates if you settled 50 people • No enthusiasm for religious toleration, free speech, or democratic practices • Cosmopolitan population

  19. New Amsterdam Surrenders • 1664- Dutch & English want New Amsterdam • Peter Stuyvesant forced to surrender to English • Land given to Duke of York by his brother King Charles II

  20. Pennsylvania • 1681 – Established by William Penn as a refuge for the Quakers • Quaker beliefs • Take no oaths, simple town meetings, democratic, turn the other cheek, etc… • Penn: “First American advertising man.”

  21. Pennsylvania • Representative Assembly elected by landowners • No tax supported church • Opposed war & slavery • Rich mix of ethnic groups • Great relationship with Native Americans

  22. Changes in the Colonies • 1702 – East & West Jersey combined into New Jersey • 2 proprietors received land by Duke of York • 1703 – Delaware (Lord de la Warr) granted its own assembly • Remained under the control of Pennsylvania until American Revolution

  23. Fertile soil – “Bread Colonies” Broad rivers – Encouraged movement Forests – lumbering & shipbuilding Deep harbors – commerce/seaports of NY & Philadelphia Intermediate landholdings (size) Most ethnically mixed Unusual degree of religious toleration & democratic control More economic democracy Characteristics of the Middle Colonies

  24. All basically English Some self-government Some degree of religious toleration/ educational opportunity Unusual advantages for economic and social self-development All separated from home authority by 3,000 miles Similarities Among all the Colonies