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Chapter 3 Settling the Northern Colonies 1619-1700. A Little Background. Henry VIII broke away from the Catholic Church in the 1530’s - made himself the head of the Church of England which stimulated Puritanism .

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a little background
A Little Background
  • Henry VIII broke away from the Catholic Church in the 1530’s - made himself the head of the Church of England which stimulated Puritanism.
  • Puritans: English religious reformers who wanted a total purification of English Christianity – to de-catholicize the Church of England (eliminate rituals and creeds)
  • A subgroup of devout Puritans formed called Separatists. They vowed to break away from the Church of England.
james i encourages the enclosure movement
James I Encourages the Enclosure Movement
  • Landlords were “enclosing” croplands for sheep grazing, forcing many small farmers into precarious tenancy or off the land altogether.
  • Also known as the enclosure movement
  • Many of these people decided to migrate to North America
pilgrims
Pilgrims
  • The “Separatists,” also known as Pilgrims, were hated by James I because he believed they might defy his political authority.
  • In 1608, many Separatists moved to Holland to escape persecution.
  • After a while, they became concerned with the “Dutchification” of their children.
  • They negotiated with the Virginia Company to settle in the “New World.”
pilgrims1
Pilgrims
  • Intended to sail in the Mayflower to the Virginia area but their ship went off course and arrived on the coast of New England in 1620.
  • Surveyed the land, then settled at Plymouth Rock on Plymouth Bay as squatters.
  • 102 settlers – less than half were Puritan Separatists.
mayflower compact
Mayflower Compact
  • Document of laws to form a simple government
  • Wanted to advance the Christian Faith
  • Promised all due submission and obedience
  • Submit to the will of the majority.
  • A promising step toward genuine self-government (Self-Rule). Adult male settlers met to make their own laws.
colony of plymouth
Colony of Plymouth

1st winter (1620-21) was harsh: of the 102 that came only 44 survived.

  • Set the tone for religious freedom, unlike England
  • William Bradford: governor elected 30 times.
  • Merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
massachusetts bay colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • 1630 – Eleven ships with 1,000 settlers started the new colony.
  • 1630s: “Great Migration” about 70,000 refugees left England – 20,000 Puritans went to Massachusetts, and about 48,000 to the West Indies.
  • More Puritans came to the Caribbean than to all of Massachusetts.
  • John Winthrop became the first governor
massachusetts bay colony cont
Massachusetts Bay Colony (Cont.)
  • Puritans believed in wealth through hard work
  • Maintained simple pleasures and repressed certain instincts
  • Important industries: fur trading, fishing, and ship building.
john winthrop governor
John Winthrop: Governor
  • A model of Christian Charity
  • Must accept the idea of

joiningin a covenant

with God

“We shall be as a city upon

a hill, the eyes of the people

are upon us.”

  • Severe winter = 30% survived
puritan government
Puritan Government
  • Made up of male, Puritan church members
  • Only those who were church members were eligible to vote
  • Government made up of: Governor, Governor’s Council and a representative assembly called the General Court.
  • Town meetings – only male property owners
  • Believed the purpose of government was to enforce God’s laws as found in the Bible.
puritan covenant with god
Puritan Covenant with God

Puritan belief: Make a covenant with God to follow His commands.

laws about young people
Laws about Young People
  • The town government shall take any child who is delinquent and bad and lives without working, and put him in a house of correction.
  • A young person cannot move out of town unless he can show the town authorities that he has a job and a place to live in the new town.
laws about young people1
Laws about Young People
  • The town authorities shall take any children of parents who are ill and unable to care for them and put them to work.
  • If a child of 16 or older is rebellious and stubborn and lives in evil ways and will not obey his parents, his father and mother may bring him to court and testify of this and…such a son shall be put to death!
dissenting puritans who flouted authority had to
Dissenting Puritans who flouted authority had to…
  • Pay fines
  • Receive floggings
  • Be Banished
anne hutchinson
Anne Hutchinson
  • Banished for questioning moral authority
  • “A woman of haughty and fierce courage, of a nimble wit and active spirit”
  • Hutchinson said: “The truly saved need not bother to obey the laws of God or man.”
roger williams and rhode island
Roger Williams and Rhode Island
  • Found guilty of Heresy, he was Banished in 1636.
  • Fled to Rhode Island and established a colony: Little Rhody
  • Some considered it “The Sewer” because it had exiles and malcontents.
  • It started out as a squatter colony, but secured a charter from Parliament in 1644.
  • Established complete freedom of religion.
  • Simple manhood suffrage (later had a property qualification)
two different philosophies
Two Different Philosophies
  • The Native Americans believed that the land should be shared.
    • Use land, but not own land
  • English settlers believed in ownership of land
    • Believed Indians were wasting the land.
  • Led to many Indian conflicts
king philip s war 1675 1676
King Philip’s War 1675-1676
  • Metacom (Massasoit’s son) was able to unite many Native tribes to fight against the settlers.
  • He was called King Philip by the Engish.
  • Native Americans were successful in driving the settlers back into their larger towns.
  • Metacom was killed and beheaded, his head was carried on a pike and displayed for years at Plymouth.
  • The war inflicted a lasting defeat on the Native Americans in New England.
native americans
Native Americans
  • In New England Native Americans were never united again
  • Treated as inferiors
  • Heathens
  • Many succumbed to diseases such as diphtheria, measles, chicken pox, mumps, whooping cough, and tuberculosis brought by the Europeans
  • Numbers greatly reduced
new netherlands later new york
New Netherlands (Later New York)
  • English explorer Henry Hudson sailed for the Dutch East India Company
  • Established for a quick profit by trading fur
  • New Amsterdam later becomes New York City.
  • Patroonships: feudal estates (land) for promoters who agree to settle 50 people on them.
  • Peter Stuyvesant – governor kicked out the Swedes from the Delaware
loss of new amsterdam
Loss of New Amsterdam
  • Anglo-Dutch Wars
  • 1644 - Charles II gave the New Amsterdam area to his brother, the Duke of York
  • 1664 - English squadron appeared in New Amsterdam.
  • Peter Stuyvesant forced to surrender without a shot being fired.
  • Name changed to New York.
king james ii catholic
King James II (Catholic)
  • Wanted more authority over New England colonies so he dissolved the governments in 1686 and created The Dominion of New England
  • On June 3, 1686, King James II of England decreed the creation of the Dominion as a measure to enforce the Navigation Acts and to coordinate the mutual defense of the colonies against French and Indian attacks.
dominion of new england 1686
Dominion of New England 1686
  • Created by royal authority and included all New England colonies
  • Was created by the English government to streamline the administration of its colonies
  • Was designed to bolster colonial defense
  • Eventually included New York and east and west New Jersey
  • To help administer the Navigation Laws – tied American trade with countries not ruled by the English. (control on trade)
  • Smuggling became more common.
why was sir edmund andros hated
Why was Sir Edmund Andros hated?
  • He enforced Navigation Laws which restricted colonial trade.
  • He revoked land titles.
  • Suppressed smuggling.
  • Taxed the people without representation.
  • Stopped town meetings.
slide36

Glorious Revolution

Bloodless take-over of English Government-James II was dethroned and the Dutch William III and his wife Mary were enthroned. Mary was daughter of James II .William and Mary dissolved the Dominion of New Englandand… relax royal grip on colonial trade

slide39

William Penn

The “Holy Experiment”

pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
  • In 1681, Charles II gave land as payment to William Penn
  • Refugee for persecuted people
  • Society of Friends = Quakers
  • Holy Experiment
  • Land purchased, not

stolen

society of friends
Society of Friends
  • King glad to get rid of because Quakers wouldn’t join the military
  • Detested war or violence
  • Advocates of passive resistance
  • Pennsylvania (Penn’s Woodland)
  • Welcomed “substantial” (wealthy) citizens and had liberal land policy – attracted immigrants.
  • No slavery
connecticut
Connecticut

Thomas Hooker established colony whose government was ruled by the

  • Fundamental Orders –
    • Any white man owning property could vote
    • Established a regime democratically elected controlled by “substantial” citizens”
massachusetts bay colony1
Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • A City upon a Hill

Autopian alternative

to Old England

education encouraged
Education Encouraged
  • Established congregations
  • Old Deluder Satan Act of 1647
    • Every town with 50 or more households must appoint someone to teach the children
    • Teach to read the Bible