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Settling the Northern Colonies

Settling the Northern Colonies

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Settling the Northern Colonies

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  1. Settling the Northern Colonies Chapter Three

  2. Alden, John • Allerton, Isaac • Mary (Norris) Allerton, wife • Bartholomew Allerton, son • Remember Allerton, daughter • Mary Allerton, daughter • Allerton, John • Billington, John • Eleanor Billington, wife • John Billington, son • Francis Billington, son • Bradford, William • Dorothy (May) Bradford, wife • Brewster, William • Mary Brewster, wife • Love Brewster, son • Wrestling Brewster, son • Britteridge, Richard • More, Ellen • Jasper More, brother • Richard More, brother • Mary More, sister • Mullins, William • Alice Mullins, wife • Priscilla Mullins, daughter • Joseph Mullins, son • Priest, Degory • Rigsdale, John • Alice Rigsdale, wife • Rogers, Thomas • Joseph Rogers, son • Standish, Myles • Rose Standish, wife • Tilley, Edward • Ann (Cooper) Tilley, wife • Tilley, John • Joan (Hurst)(Rogers) Tilley, wife • Elizabeth Tilley, daughter • Tinker, Thomas • Mrs. Thomas Tinker, wife • boy Tinker, son • What do you notice about the people on this list?

  3. Protestantism spreads across Europe • Many felt Catholic church had become corrupt and wanted to “get back to basics” • English Protestants who thought the Reformation didn’t go far enough = Puritans • Some Puritan Separatists wanted total separation from Church of England • Pilgrims (some Separatists, others not) set sail for America in Mayflower in 1620 to practice religion freely • Pilgrims signed Mayflower Compact (laws for greater good) before disembarking and established Plymouth Colony • Originally destined for VA, but thrown off course • More than half of the group died during the first winter from hunger, cold, and sickness • The rest survived mostly because of help from Wampanoag Indians A Religious Venture

  4. Massachusetts Bay founded by Puritan merchants to make profit, also for religious reasons • John Winthrop “We must be as a City upon a hill. The eyes of all people are upon us” • Colony’s success inspired Great Migration • Much of colony’s government based on rule by the Godly • Religious leaders conducted public interrogations of people who claimed to have experienced conversion The Bay Colony Bible Commonwealth

  5. Anne Hutchinson • Claimed that because of predestination it wasn’t necessary to obey the laws of God or man • Brought to trial and banished • Moved to Rhode Island, then NY where she and all but one family member were killed by Indians • Roger Williams • Extreme Separatist • Denied authority of government of Massachusetts Bay Colony • Put on trial and found guilty • Banished, he fled to Rhode Island area where he built a Baptist church and established complete freedom of religion • Believed in buying land from Indians rather than taking it Trouble in the Bible Commonwealth

  6. Massasoit (Wampanoag chieftan) made treaty with Pilgrims • Confrontations with Indians were increasing • Tried to convert Indians to Christianity • Natives well armed • attacked over half of New England towns, killed 600, destroyed 12 towns completely • Mohawk and Christian Indians oppose Metacomet(known as King Philip – son of Massasoit) • Metcomet beheaded, drawn and quartered • Wife and children sold into slavery • Indians flee, New York or Canada • New England Indian population reduced by 40%, worsened English hostility to Indians • Indians never again posed major threat to colonists King Philip’s War

  7. Charles II shows favor to CT and works against Massachusetts Bay • King James II wishes stronger hold on colonies • Sends investigators • Colonies restricted heavily • Glorious Revolution in England inspires strikes against royal authority in New England • More English officials brought to America, but many were incompetent Colonial Unity and Independence

  8. New York • Seized by British from Dutch, 1664, renamed for Charles II’s bro, James (soon to be II) Then Duke of York • Dutch gave up peacefully, preferring British rule • 1685, James becomes King, immigration spikes (9000 in 1664 to 20,000 1700 • Rich Dutch and English landholders (“patroons”) own vast estates, form vastly influential social and political elite • Most Dutch allowed to keep Hudson River Valley holdings • Together with the British royalists, formed a powerful upper class in New York • Dutch names such as Roosevelt, Van Buren, Vanderbilt and others are evidence of initial Dutch presence in New Netherland The Dutch and New York

  9. Pennsylvania - payment by Charles II to William Penn, son of strong Stuart supporter (and Admiral) • Quakers - “The Society of Friends” • adherents of George Fox • “Quaking with the Spirit” • no hat tipping to “betters”, no swearing oaths • refused military service • equality of women • refusal to adopt formal creed, order of worship • persecuted in England (and by the Church of England) • Fined for missing Anglican services, most couldn’t (wouldn’t ) pay • William Penn • Jailed 1669, freed, took King’s payment prepared for emigration to America • Philadelphia ( the city of Brotherly Love) • formed unicameral gov’t, Quaker dominated • relatively late settlement meant fewer Indian encounters • Penn in debt, spent most of time in England • Died in debt, but Colony strong success Pennsylvania