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3. A Topical Approach to. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT. Physical Development and Biological Aging. John W. Santrock. Physical Development and Biological Aging. Body Growth and Change The Brain Sleep Longevity. Body Growth and Change. Patterns of Growth.

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Life span development l.jpg

3

A Topical Approach to

LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT

Physical Development and Biological Aging

John W. Santrock


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Physical Development and Biological Aging

  • Body Growth and Change

  • The Brain

  • Sleep

  • Longevity


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Body Growth and Change

Patterns of Growth

  • Cephalocaudal pattern — growth occurs first at the top—the head—and gradually proceeds from top to bottom

  • Proximodistal pattern — growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities


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Body Growth and Change

Height and Weight in Infancy and Childhood

Infancy

  • Average 20 inches, 7 ½ lbs at birth

  • Triple weight by 1 year

  • ½ adult height, 20% adult weight by age 2

Early

Childhood

  • Growth slows, patterns vary individually

  • Girls slightly smaller and lighter

  • Girls gain fat, boys gain muscle

Middle and Late Childhood

  • Slower, consistent growth

  • Muscle mass and strength increase

  • Boys stronger, body proportions change


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Body Growth and Change

Changes in Proportions of the Human Body During Growth

Fig. 3.1


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Body Growth and Change

Height and Weight in Infancy and Childhood

  • Why some children are unusually short

    • Congenital factors

    • Growth hormone deficiency

    • Physical problem developed in childhood

    • Maternal smoking during pregnancy

    • Emotional difficulty


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Heredity

Hormones

Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, gonads

Androgens (testosterone)

Estrogens (estradiol)

Thyroid gland and growth effects

Cortisol may influence growth

Body Growth and Change

Determinants of Puberty


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Body Growth and Change

Puberty

  • Period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that take place in early adolescence

  • Two phases:

    • Adrenarche — changes in adrenal glands

    • Gonardarche

      • Menarche

      • Spermarche

  • Weight and body fat


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Body Growth and Change

Hormone Levels by Sex and Pubertal Stage for Testosterone and Estadiol

Fig. 3.2


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Body Growth and Change

Pubertal Growth Spurt

Fig. 3.3


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Normal Range and Average Development of Sexual Characteristics in Males and Females

Fig. 3.4


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Body Growth and Change Characteristics in Males and Females

Secular Trends in Puberty

  • Onset of puberty beginning earlier

    • Norway — menarche at 17 in 1840s, now 13

    • U.S. — menarche at 15 in 1840s, now 12½

      • White girls at average age of 10

      • African American girls at average age 8 to 9


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Body Growth and Change Characteristics in Males and Females

Body Image in Puberty

  • Adolescents become preoccupied by bodies

    • Overall, girls less satisfied, boys more satisfied

    • Throughout puberty…

      • Girls’ dissatisfaction increases — body fat increases

      • Boys’ satisfaction increases — muscle mass increases


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Body Growth and Change Characteristics in Males and Females

Body Image in Puberty

  • Early and Late Maturation

    • Early boys more positive, better peer relations

    • Late boys less positive but have more positive identity by 30s than early boys


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Body Growth and Change Characteristics in Males and Females

Body Image in Puberty

  • Early and Late Maturation

    • Early girls more at risk for problems

      • Smoking and drinking

      • Depression and eating disorders

      • Lower education and occupational attainment

      • Early dating and sexual experiences

      • Mental disorders and behavior problems


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Body Growth and Change Characteristics in Males and Females

Early Adulthood

  • Physical changes may be subtle

    • Height is constant

    • Many reach peak of muscle tone and

      strength in late teens and twenties

    • Peak in joint functions in twenties

    • Decline in the thirties


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Body Growth and Change Characteristics in Males and Females

Middle Adulthood

  • Physical

    • Lose height, gain weight

    • More skin wrinkling, sagging in 40s and 50s

    • Youth-oriented culture motivates life style changes

  • Strength, bone density, flexibility decrease

    • 1 to 2 percent loss each year after age 50

    • Sarcopenia: age-related loss of muscle mass


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Body Growth and Change Characteristics in Males and Females

Middle Adulthood

  • Cardiovascular system and lungs

    • HDL and LDL cholesterol, clogged arteries

    • Hypertension: blood pressure increases

    • Decreased lung capacity after age 55

  • Sexuality changes

    • Climacteric — fertility declines

    • Menopause — menstrual periods cease


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Body Growth and Change Characteristics in Males and Females

Lung Capacity, Smoking and Age

Fig. 3.5


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Body Growth and Change Characteristics in Males and Females

Late Adulthood

  • Variability in physical declines

    • Socioeconomic status is a big factor

  • Physical appearance

    • Wrinkles, age spots, height and weight loss

    • Weightlifting can slow process

  • Circulatory system

    • Increased blood pressure; linked to chronic

      conditions and longevity


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

Brain Physiology

  • Structure and function

    • Forebrain

    • Cerebral cortex has four lobes

      • Two hemispheres usually work together

        and each lobe has a primary function

      • Frontal, occipital, temporal, parietal lobes

    • Amygdala

    • Hippocampus


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

The Brain’s Four Lobes

Fig. 3.7


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

Functions of Lobes of the Cortex

Involved in voluntary movement, thinking, personality, and intentionality or purpose

Frontal lobes

Occipital lobes

Function in vision

Active role in hearing, language processing, and memory

Temporal lobes

Roles in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control

Parietal lobes


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Development of the Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

  • Can skip pages 107-131

  • By age 6, almost adult size.

  • Brain growth spurts: coincide with changes in cognitive behavior

  • Cerebellum, largest part of brain, divides into halves

  • Lateralization, specialties of each hemisphere; left: language and logical thinking; right: visual and spatial functions


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

Brain Physiology

  • Neurons— nerve cells handling information processing at the cellular level

    • Axon, dendrites, synapses

    • Neurotransmitters: dopamine

    • Myelin sheath and myelination

    • Neural circuits

  • Lateralization— specialization of functions in one hemisphere of cerebral cortex


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

The Neuron

Fig. 3.8


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

The Brain In Infancy

  • Shaken Baby Syndrome

  • Extensive brain development in utero

    • Born with about 100 billion neurons

    • Enriched early experiences can enhance brain

      growth and functioning

    • Brain flexibility and resilience demonstrated in

      deprived environments

  • Experience determines brain connections

    • Enriched and deprived environments


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

The Brain In Infancy

  • Changing neurons

    • Myelination; visual and auditory

    • Rapid growth of myelin sheath, dendrite and

      synapse connections

    • Blooming and pruning of connections in brain

    • Peak synaptic overproduction influenced by

      heredity and environment


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

The Brain In Infancy

  • At birth, greater activity in left hemisphere specializes as infants listen to speech

  • Motor control begins about 2 months

  • Brain areas do not mature uniformly; skills affected by myelination and interconnections


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

Dendritic Spreading

Fig. 3.11


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Synaptic Density in Human Brain from Infancy to Adulthood Characteristics in Males and Females

Fig. 3.12


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

The Brain in Childhood

  • During early childhood, the brain and head grow more rapidly than any other part of the body — growth curves

  • Some of brain’s increase due to mylenation and some due to increase in number and size of dendrites

  • Greatest anatomical brain increases from ages 3 to 15 years


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

Growth Curves for Head and Brain and for Height and Weight

Fig. 3.13


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

The Brain in Adolescence

  • Growth still occurs in adolescence

    • Corpus callosum: fiber bundle thickens

    • Prefrontal cortex grows: reasoning, self-control, and decision making

    • Amygdala matures early: emotions and anger

  • Implications for adolescent behavior, legal system, and death penalty?


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

The Brain in Adolescence

  • Adolescent emotions —

    • Slow development of prefrontal cortex

    • Poor self-control; seek rewards and pleasure

    • Seek novelty; increased risk-taking

    • Lack of practical experiences; immature judgment


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

Adulthood and Aging

  • The Shrinking, Slowing Brain

    • Brain loss: 5-10% of weight in ages 20 to 90

    • Dendrites decrease; death of brain cells

    • Shrinkage of prefrontal cortex

    • General slowing of function in brain and

      spinal cord begins in middle adulthood and

      accelerates in late adulthood

    • Reductions in neurotransmitters


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The Brain Characteristics in Males and Females

The Adapting Brain

  • Grows new brain cells throughout life

    • Extent depends on environment

  • Dendrite growth continues in adults

  • Brain rewires to compensate for losses

  • Less lateralization with age, more adaptation

  • Findings from Nun Study


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Sleep Characteristics in Males and Females

Sleep in Infancy

  • Newborns average 16-17 hours a day

  • Varied sleeping patterns

    • Longest sleep period: 11 pm to 7 am

    • May change from longer to shorter sleep periods

    • Most close to adult patterns by 4 months

  • More REM sleep than any other time of life

  • Shared sleeping with parents is controversial


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Sleep Across the Human Life Span Characteristics in Males and Females

Fig. 3.18


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Sleep Characteristics in Males and Females

SIDS

  • Infant stops breathing, usually during night, and suddenly dies without apparent cause

  • At highest risk

  • Having siblings who died of SIDS

  • African American and Eskimo infants

  • Lower SES groups

  • Passive exposure to cigarette smoke

  • Infants ages 4 to 6 wks

  • Sleeping on stomachs, use of soft bedding

  • Low birth weight; diagnosed with sleep apnea

  • Sleeping with pacifier


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Sleep Characteristics in Males and Females

Sleep in Early Childhood

  • Most young children sleep through the night and have one daytime nap

    • Nightmares: frightening dreams are more common

    • Night Terrors: sudden arousal from sleep


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Sleep Characteristics in Males and Females

Sleep in Adolescence

  • Many adolescents are not getting enough sleep; average 9½ hours when available

    • Like to stay up late, sleep late in mornings

    • Try to make up sleep debt on weekends

  • Biological clocks have hormonal shift

    • Melatonin production — about an hour later each day delays sleepiness at night


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Sleep Characteristics in Males and Females

Sleep in Adolescence

  • Sleep deprivation and school performance

    • Grogginess and inattentiveness

    • Poor test performance

    • Discipline problems

    • Reports of illness and depression

    • Low self-esteem

    • Ineffective stress management, exercise, diet


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Sleep Characteristics in Males and Females

Adulthood and Aging

  • Many adults don’t get enough sleep

  • Middle age may bring sleep problems

    • Wakeful periods at night, less deep sleep

  • Many older adults go to bed earlier at night and wake up earlier in the morning

    • Afternoon naps

  • Insomnia increases in late adulthood


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Longevity Characteristics in Males and Females

Life Expectancy and Life Span

  • Life span — upper boundary of life, maximum number of years an individual can live; about 120 years of age

  • Life expectancy — number of years that an average person born in a particular year will probably live


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Longevity Characteristics in Males and Females

Life Expectancy

  • Females average 80 years, 74 years for males

  • Gender differences influenced by biological factors – extra X for females

  • Life expectancy varies across countries

  • U.S. men more likely to die from leading causes of death

  • Associated with lifestyle and workplace stress


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Longevity Characteristics in Males and Females

Centenarians

  • Numbers increasing; affected by

    • Genes, heredity, and family history

    • Women who have never married

    • Ability to cope successfully with stress

    • Education, health, and lifestyle

    • Individual personality

  • Highest ratio in Okinawa


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Longevity Characteristics in Males and Females

Risks of Dying from Cancer in Okinawa, Japan, and the United States

Fig. 3.19


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Longevity Characteristics in Males and Females

Biological Theories of Aging

Cellular ClockTheory

Maximum times that human cells can divide is about 75 to 80

People age because their cells’ metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules (free radicals)

Free-Radical Theory

MitochondrialTheory

Aging caused by decay of mitochondria; oxidative damage

Aging in body’s hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase likelihood of disease

Hormonal Stress Theory

Fig. 3.20


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3 Characteristics in Males and Females

The End