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Unifications of Europe Italy and Germany. WHII #25. Unification of Italy (1870). By the mid 1800s, Italy was still broken up into several different city-states or principalities Each city-state was ruled by a monarch or prince

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unification of italy 1870
Unification of Italy (1870)
  • By the mid 1800s, Italy was still broken up into several different city-states or principalities
  • Each city-state was ruled by a monarch or prince
  • There was not one unified government, nor was their one unified leader
  • Beginning around 1830, there was a push among many Italians to make Italy one single state
  • This push was mainly due to NATIONALISM
two revolutions
Two Revolutions
  • Beginning in 1848, Italy started fighting its first of three wars for independence against the princes to unite the country
  • In the north the revolutionaries were led by a politician named Count Cavour – Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia
  • In the South, the revolutionaries were

led by a fearless Italian general named

Giuseppe Garibaldi

  • Those who fought with Garibaldi were

known as the Red Shirts

german unification
German Unification
  • Germany was broken up into two main regions:
    • The Kingdom of Prussia
    • The German Principalities – several small kingdoms ruled by a prince
  • Like Italy, these different areas were not united under one ruler (with the exception of Prussia)
  • It would take a great event to unite both Prussia and the principalities

- That event was the Franco-Prussian War

franco prussian war
Franco-Prussian War
  • The Franco-Prussian War was fought between France and Prussia over territory
  • The Prussian minister, Otto von Bismarck, concocted a plan that would assuredly help Prussia win the war – he would unite the Prussian empire with the German principalities
  • Bismarck stressed nationalismand knew

that a united German state would be one

of the strongest powers in all of Europe

  • When Germany unified together, France

was powerless and Germany quickly won

the war

german unification1
German Unification
  • Bismarck was named the first Chancellor of the newly formed German Empire, while Wilhelm I was named the Emperor of Germany
  • Germany took territory from France, which would be one of the leading causes of World War I
  • Out of all of this unification, an important political philosophy came from Bismarck known as Realpolitik
  • This political idea promoted the notion that a country should use any means necessary to pursue its goals