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Mobilizing for World War II

Mobilizing for World War II

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Mobilizing for World War II

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  1. Mobilizing for World War II America Goes to War (again)

  2. Mobilizing the Economy • The War Production Board • Offered fixed, generous profits for war contracts • Helped finance conversion to war production and new factories, shipyards, etc. • $175,000,000,000 in war contracts • $800,000,000 in research • Industrial production increased 96%

  3. Mobilizing the Economy • Office of Price Administration • Estb. summer, 1941 • Control inflation by fixing prices and rationing scarce commodities • Limited meat, sugar, butter, silk, nylon, coffee, auto tires • Gasoline rationing : May, 1942 • A, B, and C ration cards were issued to motorists, depending on need; • “A” cards received only 4 gallons per week (32,500 drivers were arrested by 1945 for using fake cards).

  4. Mobilizing the Economy • National War Labor Board • Like in WWI • Mediate or arbitrate labor disputes • 4 labor leaders, 4 business leaders, 4 private citizens • Could ask for takeover • United Mine Workers went on strike and soldiers took over mines; • head of Macy’s refused to accept union workers and was carried out by arresting soldiers. • 4,000,000 new union members by 1945

  5. Mobilizing the Economy • Production figures • 225% increase in arms production in 1941 alone • Dec. 1942: out-producing Germany, Italy and Japan COMBINED • 300,000 planes • 88,000 tanks • 3000 merchant ships • $50,000,000,000 of Lend-Lease Aid

  6. Mobilizing the “Message”Propaganda and Censorship

  7. Mobilizing the “Message” • Office of War Information: June 1942 • Controlled release of war news • Banned release of photos of dead U.S. • Design and content of gov’t posters • Radio series, “This is Our Enemy”, “Uncle Sam”; started “Voice of America” • 267 newsreels • Japanese Internment

  8. Mobilizing the “Message” • Issued guidelines to Hollywood: • Will this picture help win the war? • What war information problem does it seek to clarify, dramatize, or interpret? • If it is an "escape" picture, will it harm the war effort by creating a false picture of America, her allies, or the world we live in? • Does it merely use the war as the basis for a profitable picture, contributing nothing of real significance to the war effort and possibly lessening the effect of other pictures of more importance?

  9. Mobilizing the “Message” • Guidelines to Hollywood: • Does it contribute something new to our understanding of the world conflict and the various forces involved, or has the subject already been adequately covered? • When the picture reaches its maximum circulation on the screen, will it reflect conditions as they are and fill a need current at that time, or will it be out-dated? • Does the picture tell the truth or will the young people of today have reason to say they were misled by propaganda?

  10. Promoting Women in the Workforce • And the dangers…

  11. Targeting Production…and the Enemy

  12. As always, a racial angle… Life Magazine’s “how to”

  13. Scare Tactics

  14. Production and Conservation

  15. The Ultimate: Persuasion by Guilt