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Mobilizing for War. Military forces largely volunteer on both sides New military technology utilized Infantry rifle was most lethal weapon of war Infantry tactics gradually adjusted to new weapon General technology shaped course/outcome of war

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mobilizing for war
Mobilizing for War
  • Military forces largely volunteer on both sides
  • New military technology utilized
    • Infantry rifle was most lethal weapon of war
    • Infantry tactics gradually adjusted to new weapon
  • General technology shaped course/outcome of war
    • Railroad and steamship transported supplies and soldiers
    • Telegraph provided for better communication
navies the blockade and foreign relations
Navies, the Blockade, and Foreign Relations
  • South employed “King Cotton diplomacy”
    • Hoped to win British support through lure of cotton exports
    • Exports complicated by Northern blockade of Southern ports
      • Blockade seriously crippled Southern economy
slide6

The southeast

  • At one time this region had one of the largest and diverse groups of Native Americans
  • However from Carolina to Mississippi the colonial period forward had ravaged this area
  • War
  • Disease
  • Removal west
  • Had all devastated the original people of this region
slide7

Those that remained were faced with

  • Increased efforts to extended state jurisdiction over them and their lands
  • Increased racist treatment towards them
  • By the time two white armies began fighting in their lands
  • Many had Unionists in a effort to preserve their lives and their communities
slide8

One such group were the Pamunkey’s of Virginia

  • Mostly employed as guides and spies for the northern army
  • Their land lay in the route of McClellan’s delayed peninsula campaign
  • The Pamunky Indians are descendents of the Powhatan empire
  • But had gradually been forced into one of the two main racial identities of the south
    • Non-white
slide9

1802 all free non whites were required to carry their proof of freedom at all times

  • This included Native Americans who had never been anything but free
  • No certificate could mean arrest and sale into slavery
  • 1843 the ‘Gregory petition’ was drawn up attempt to claim that they were no longer Indian and therefore land could be taken
  • 1859 a result of John Brown’s attack on Harpers Ferry
  • All Pamunkey were disarmed
slide10

By the time Virginia seceded on April 4 1861

  • Descendents of the Powhattan empire had little love for Virginian
  • Local officials had circumscribed the their world
    • Economically
    • Politically
    • Socially
  • As “Free persons of color” they were linked with freed slaves and subject to racist attitudes
slide11

McClellan, hesitant in warfare, was an excellent planner

  • When he began on the peninsular campaign he had excellent knowledge of the complex terrain
  • Most of which came from Native American scouts such as the Pamunkey
  • Utilized by the Union army as
    • Land guides
    • River Pilots
    • Spies
slide12

Terrill Bradby

  • Most documented Pamuncky to serve
  • Born William Terrill Bradby in 1803
  • No formal education
  • Married in 1850
    • 4 children
  • Reported to be between 5’ 6” – 5’ 8” and approx 170lbs
slide13

Enlisted in the Union Army in May 1862

  • Illiterate and recruiting officer wrote name
  • Initially her served as a land guide for the advancing Union army
  • Also for Allan Pinkerton’s Secret Service as a spy
  • Gathering intelligence on Confederate positions and movements
slide14

In 1863 transferred to water duty

  • Served initially as a pilot second class on the James River
  • May 1864 became pilot in North Atlantic Blockading Squadron
    • Union attempt to strangle confederate war effort
  • Served on the
    • USS Schockhon
    • USS Onondaga
    • USS Huron
  • Service ended on May 29, 1865
  • Received a war pension
slide15

After war went on to be a “show Indian”

  • Giving information on culture to anthropologists
  • Also was ‘put on display’ at the Chicago World fair of 1893
  • Remained a respected member of the Pamunkey community until his death in the early twentieth century
slide17

The Cherokee had been challenged and damaged, as much if not more than other groups, during removal

  • During the Trail of Tears and subsequent relocation in Indian territory thousands of Cherokee had died
  • Frictions from removal, between the Ross faction and the Treaty faction, continued in their new homes
slide18

When the battle of the Americans arrived on Cherokee lands

  • There developed a civil war within a civil war
  • Cherokees served for both sides during the American Civil War
  • Many Cherokee served as Unionists
  • Particularly in the Kansas Indian Home Guard
    • Usually union Cherokee were supporters of Ross
slide19

In addition approximately 3000 Cherokee served for the Confederate States of America

    • Usually Treaty Party supporters
  • During the war
    • Military death
    • Disease
    • Starvation
    • Impoverishment
  • reduce the Cherokee population from 21,000 to 15,000
slide20

As early as 1863

  • 1/3 of married women were widows
  • ¼ of children were orphans
  • The most well known and effective Cherokee leader with the confederacy was Stand Waite
  • Born December 1806
  • Indian Name
    • Degadoga “He Stands [on two feet]
  • Christian name
  • Issac S. Waite
  • Became know as Stand Waite
slide21

In October 1861 the Confederacy, led in negotiations by Albert Pike, signed the Pike-Cherokee treaty

  • This committed the Confederacy and Cherokee to support each other
  • Led to a split between northern and southern Cherokee
  • Waite had been made a Colonel in the CSA 3 months before this
  • Shows his strong identification with the confederacy
slide22

The majority of Waite’s career as a confederate officer was based in Indian territory

  • He and his supports constantly harried and attacked both Union soldiers
  • And enemy Cherokees
    • Not always the same
  • Support not constant from CSA
  • But Waite remained loyal
    • Looking to the future of power structure in the Cherokee as much as supporting the CSA
slide23

CSA made Waite a Brigadier General in spring of 1864

  • He was an efficient military leader
  • Considered to be the best CSA leader in the west at the end of the war
  • Two big victories
  • First was the capture of
  • The J.R. Williams
  • A Union supply ship
  • Provided goods for CSA and disrupted Union supply lines
slide24

The second was his joint raid deep into enemy territory over 15 days in September 1864

  • Waite along with General Richard Gano
  • Ventured 400 miles in to Kansas
  • Union held
  • Once again skillfully attacked and harried Union troops along with capturing supplies
  • At the battle of Cabin Creek, Sept. 19 1864 captured
    • 129 wagons full of supplies and 740 mules
    • Killed 200 Union soldiers and took 120 prisoners
slide25

June 23, 1865

  • A man in a tattered CSA uniform
  • At the head of a cavalry detachment
  • Rode to a meeting place 12 miles from Doaksville in the Choctaw territory
  • This was to be the scene of Waites Surrender
  • 2 months after Lee surrendered
1877 strike
1877 strike

It began in Baltimore, on July 16th 1877 were a spontaneous action led to a walk out of employees on the B + O railway.

Demands for fair wages and safe working conditions

Railroad executives had issued across-the-board pay cuts in response to an economic downturn

At least 100 people were killed.

slide30
The troops used to put down the strike were those government brought back from the south under the compromise of 1877
  • The Railway also became the conduit for the news of the strike.
  • Further strikes in
  • Pittsburgh
  • Chicago
  • St Louis
  • San Francisco.
  • 80,000 workers out in all
slide31
Many people died in the Strike
  • Federal troops, Police, and private thugs sent in to break up the strikes
  • Pitched battles
  • Government determined to protect big business
  • In San Francisco, we saw a racial component within the discussion of the strike
  • Chinese workers became the targets of blame.
the rise of jim crow laws in the south
The rise of Jim Crow Laws in the south
  • In February 1843 group of four white men from Virginia, billed as the "Virgina Minstrels", applied black cork to their faces and performed a song-and-dance act in a small hall in New York City
  • Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice. Rice was a white actor
slide33
The removal of troops from the south allowed for a resurgence of white dominance and control
  • Segregation became in many ways more rigidly enforced
  • 1890s Jim Crow Laws
  • Legal rights subject to
  • Residency requirements
  • Literacy requirements
  • Poll taxes
slide34
What had been the custom of segregation and supposed white superiority (de facto segregation)
  • Became enshrined in many laws
    • know collectively by the term Jim Crow
  • separated humanity into two races each with their own position (de jure segregation).
slide35
As the laws were made by the whites the whites ended up on top
  • Not just a desire to reinforce a dominant position
  • Also a desire to create a legal basis for punishment of those who failed to show what whites considered the necessary deference.
introduction of jim crow laws
Introduction of Jim Crow Laws
  • 1890 Mississippi
  • 1895 South Carolina
  • Over the next twelve years all southern states bring them in
slide37
Nurses No person or corporation shall require any white female nurse to nurse in wards or rooms in hospitals, either public or private, in which negro men are placed. Alabama
  • Railroads The conductor of each passenger train is authorized and required to assign each passenger to the car or the division of the car, when it is divided by a partition, designated for the race to which such passenger belongs. Alabama
  • Restaurants It shall be unlawful to conduct a restaurant or other place for the serving of food in the city, at which white and colored people are served in the same room, unless such white and colored persons are effectually separated by a solid partition extending from the floor upward to a distance of seven feet or higher, and unless a separate entrance from the street is provided for each compartment. Alabama
1890s louisiana separate car act plessey vs ferguson
1890s Louisiana Separate Car Act- Plessey Vs Ferguson
  • Racial segregation was not limited to the South.
  • This 1889 engraving depicts a man being expelled from a “white” railroad car in Pennsylvania.
racial violence
Racial Violence
  • Along with the rise of legal punishments we see the rise of illegal actions
  • Lynching
  • 1882-1890 – at least 1000 African Americans killed
  • 1892 – 162 killed in this year alone
slide40

The racial violence of lynching

  • Graphically portrayed by
  • Billie Holliday
  • In the song
  • Strange Fruit
slide41

SOUTHERN TREES BEAR A STRANGE FRUIT

  • BLOOD ON THE LEAVES AND BLOOD AT THE ROOT
  • BLACK BODY SWINGING IN THE SOUTHERN BREEZE
  • STRANGE FRUIT HANGING FROM THE POPLAR TREES
  • PASTORAL SCENE OF THE GALLANT SOUTH
  • THE BULGING EYES AND THE TWISTED MOUTH
  • SCENT OF MAGNOLIA SWEET AND FRESHAND THE SUDDEN SMELL OF BURNING FLESH!
  • HERE IS A FRUIT FOR THE CROWS TO PLUCK FOR THE RAIN TO GATHER, FOR THE WIND TO SUCK
  • FOR THE SUN TO ROT, FOR A TREE TO DROP
  • HERE IS A STRANGE AND BITTER CROP.
slide42

Right: George Meadows, hanged by a lynch-mob, Pratt Mines, Alabama, Jan. 15, 1889

Left: A lynched man with onlookers, Arkansas, c1890

slide43

Ida B. Wells (1862-1931),

a vigorous campaigner against

lynching in the 1890s and later

among the founders of the

National Association for the

Advancement of Colored

People (NAACP).

ida b wells a red record 1895
Ida B. Wells, A Red Record (1895)
  • LYNCHINGS BY STATES - 1893
  • Alabama, 25; Arkansas, 7; Florida, 7; Georgia, 24; Indian Territory, 1; Illinois, 3; Kansas, 2; Kentucky, 8; Louisiana, 18; Mississippi, 17; Missouri, 3; New York, 1; South Carolina, 15; Tennessee, 10; Texas, 8; Virginia, 10.