Chapter 6 Part II
Godlike Heroes • Children of the gods • Heracles • Son of Zeus and a mortal • Very strong, courageous • Became a god upon his death • Performed ten great labors • Killed the Nemean lion • Captured the Minoan bull • Battled the Cerberus
Godlike heroes, continued • Theseus • Killed the Minotaur • Jason • Led the Argonauts on a quest for the Golden Fleece • Cadmus • Killed a dragon • Bellerophon and Pegasus • Killed the Chimera monster • Atlanta • Part of the Argonauts, a runner
Prayers and Sacrifices • Greeks worshipped the Olympians • If things did not go well for them, they assumed that they had angered the gods • Sacrificed animals • Very superstitious about what the entrails showed
Prayers and sacrifice, continued • Each city had its own patron deity and local gods (in addition to the Olympians) • Altars in homes and the city • Festivals • Beginnings of Greek theater and the Olympic Games • All towns had a hearth (Hestia)
Prayers and sacrifice, continued • What was missing from Greek society? • Moral code • Hubris – excessive pride or arrogance • What was the job of the priest? • What was the purpose of a temple?
The Greek Concept of death • Woman of the household washed the body with olive oil, dressed it in white, placed a wreath on the head • Funeral procession • Both men and women buried with special possessions
The greek concept of death, continued • Life after death • Soul went to the Underworld • Guided by Hermes to the River Styx • Coin given to Charon to cross • Cerberus on other side • Drank from the Lethe River • So you forget about life on earth
Judgment • Souls were judged on the person’s former life • Tartarus • For the wicked • Asphodel Fields • Where most ended up; a boring, aimless afterlife • Elysian Fields • For those who had led a virtuous life • Isles of the Blessed • Nearly impossible to achieve
The Oracles • Oracles – religious shrines • Special priests relayed messages and interpreted the answer • Over 250 oracles in Greece • Delphi • Most famous oracle at Apollo’s temple • On Mt. Parnassus • Greeks considered this the center of the world • Priestess was called Pythia
The oracles • How did Pythia communicate with Apollo? • What was the process to have your question answered? • What happened to Pythia? • Who was the oldest oracle? • Dodona
Religion and Science • Greeks questioned the world around them, despite their belief in supernatural deities • Saw no contradiction between religion and science
Questions on page 63 • #7 – Who was Cerberus? • #8 – What were the Elysian Fields? • #9 – How did the priests at the oracles solve the problems of finding acceptable answers to difficult questions? • #10 – How did the Greeks reconcile their religious beliefs with their respect for human reasoning?