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Chapter 6. Part II. Godlike Heroes. Children of the gods Heracles Son of Zeus and a mortal Very strong, courageous Became a god upon his death Performed ten great labors Killed the Nemean lion Captured the Minoan bull Battled the Cerberus. Godlike heroes, continued. Theseus

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chapter 6
Chapter 6

Part II

godlike heroes
Godlike Heroes
  • Children of the gods
    • Heracles
      • Son of Zeus and a mortal
      • Very strong, courageous
      • Became a god upon his death
      • Performed ten great labors
        • Killed the Nemean lion
        • Captured the Minoan bull
        • Battled the Cerberus
godlike heroes continued
Godlike heroes, continued
  • Theseus
    • Killed the Minotaur
  • Jason
    • Led the Argonauts on a quest for the Golden Fleece
  • Cadmus
    • Killed a dragon
  • Bellerophon and Pegasus
    • Killed the Chimera monster
  • Atlanta
    • Part of the Argonauts, a runner
prayers and sacrifices
Prayers and Sacrifices
  • Greeks worshipped the Olympians
    • If things did not go well for them, they assumed that they had angered the gods
  • Sacrificed animals
    • Very superstitious about what the entrails showed
prayers and sacrifice continued
Prayers and sacrifice, continued
  • Each city had its own patron deity and local gods (in addition to the Olympians)
  • Altars in homes and the city
  • Festivals
    • Beginnings of Greek theater and the Olympic Games
  • All towns had a hearth (Hestia)
prayers and sacrifice continued1
Prayers and sacrifice, continued
  • What was missing from Greek society?
    • Moral code
    • Hubris – excessive pride or arrogance
  • What was the job of the priest?
  • What was the purpose of a temple?
the greek concept of death
The Greek Concept of death
  • Woman of the household washed the body with olive oil, dressed it in white, placed a wreath on the head
  • Funeral procession
  • Both men and women buried with special possessions
the greek concept of death continued
The greek concept of death, continued
  • Life after death
    • Soul went to the Underworld
      • Guided by Hermes to the River Styx
    • Coin given to Charon to cross
    • Cerberus on other side
    • Drank from the Lethe River
      • So you forget about life on earth
judgment
Judgment
  • Souls were judged on the person’s former life
  • Tartarus
    • For the wicked
  • Asphodel Fields
    • Where most ended up; a boring, aimless afterlife
  • Elysian Fields
    • For those who had led a virtuous life
  • Isles of the Blessed
    • Nearly impossible to achieve
the oracles
The Oracles
  • Oracles – religious shrines
    • Special priests relayed messages and interpreted the answer
    • Over 250 oracles in Greece
  • Delphi
    • Most famous oracle at Apollo’s temple
    • On Mt. Parnassus
    • Greeks considered this the center of the world
    • Priestess was called Pythia
the oracles1
The oracles
  • How did Pythia communicate with Apollo?
  • What was the process to have your question answered?
  • What happened to Pythia?
  • Who was the oldest oracle?
    • Dodona
religion and science
Religion and Science
  • Greeks questioned the world around them, despite their belief in supernatural deities
  • Saw no contradiction between religion and science
questions on page 63
Questions on page 63
  • #7 – Who was Cerberus?
  • #8 – What were the Elysian Fields?
  • #9 – How did the priests at the oracles solve the problems of finding acceptable answers to difficult questions?
  • #10 – How did the Greeks reconcile their religious beliefs with their respect for human reasoning?
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