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Personality Psychology. Chapter 3 Physiological Approaches to Personality. Physiological Perspective. Physiology is important to the extent that differences in physiology create, contribute to, or indicate differences in psychological functioning. Sheldon’s Physiological Approach

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Personality Psychology

Chapter 3

Physiological Approaches

to Personality

slide2

Physiological Perspective

Physiology is important to the extent that differences in physiology create, contribute to, or indicate differences in psychological functioning

slide3

Sheldon’s Physiological Approach

to Personality

  • Body type determines personality
      • Mesomorph
      • Ectomorph
      • Endomorph
slide5

Physiological Measures Commonly

Used in Personality Research

  • Electrodermal Activity
  • Cardiovascular Activity
  • Brain Electrical Activity
  • Other Measures
slide6

Physiological-Based

Dimensions of Personality

Extraversion-Introversion

Eysenck’s Theory:

Introverts are characterized by higher levels of activity in the brain’s ascending reticular activating system

slide7

Physiological-Based

Dimensions of Personality

Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment

Gray’s reinterpretation of Eysenck’s theory led to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory

  • Behavioral Activation System
  • Behavioral Inhibition System
slide9

Physiological-Based

Dimensions of Personality

Sensation Seeking

Grew out of studies on sensory deprivation

slide10

Physiological-Based

Dimensions of Personality

Sensation Seeking

  • Hobb’s Theory of Optimal Level of Arousal
  • Zuckerman’s Theory and Research
slide11

Physiological-Based

Dimensions of Personality

Neurotransmitter Theories

  • Dopamine and Pleasure
  • Seratonin and Depression
  • Norepinepherine and Fight-or-Flight
slide12

Physiological-Based

Dimensions of Personality

Neurotransmitter Theories

Cloninger’s Tridimensional Personality Model

  • Novelty Seeking
  • Harm Avoidance
  • Reward Dependence
slide13
Pavlov’s Personality Theory

“Strong” and “Weak” nervous systems

Subsequent Research

High reactive people need less stimulation

Physiological-Based

Dimensions of Personality

Strength of the Nervous System

slide14

Physiological-Based

Dimensions of Personality

Morningness-Eveningness

  • Circadian Rhythms
  • Temporal-Isolation Studies
  • Free Running/Short and Long Biological Rhythms
slide15

Physiological-Based

Dimensions of Personality

Morningness-Eveningness

  • Horne and Ostberg Questionnaire
  • Practical Consequences of Morningness-Eveningness
slide16

Physiological-Based

Dimensions of Personality

Brain Asymmetry and Affective Style

More active with pleasant emotion

More active with negative emotions

slide17

Summary

  • Sheldon’s Physiological Approach
  • Physiological Measures
  • Physiologically-Based Dimensions of Personality