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CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK

CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK

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CHAPTER 3 THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK

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  1. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Counseling or Psychotherapy? • Both Counseling and Psychotherapy Rely on the Same Theoretical Underpinnings • How Practitioners Implement Them May Vary • With More Education and Training You Can Do Counseling and Eventually Psychotherapy

  2. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Individual Versus Systems Approach to Clients • Individual Approach: Person Can Change e.g., Viktor Frankl, William Glasser • Systems Approach: Lives Are Seen Contextually e.g., Social and Family Systems

  3. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Why Have a Theory? • Offers Us a Comprehensive System of Doing Counseling • Helps Us Understand Clients, Offers Techniques, and Predicts Change • Theories Are Heuristic: They Are Researchable and Testable.

  4. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Views of Human Nature • Basis for Our Understanding of Theory • Major Orientations: Psychodynamic, Behavioral, Humanistic, & Cognitive • Offers Explanations for Why People Are Motivated to Do the Things They Do.

  5. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Deterministic Versus Antideterministic View of Human Nature • Deterministic View Asserts That There is Little Ability for the Person to Change • Determinism: Early Childhood, Biology, Genetics Determine Later Psychological Makeup Often Adheres to Medical Model • Antideterministic View Has Belief in the Ability of the Individual to Change

  6. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Directive Versus Nondirective Approach to Clients • Directive View Believes Clients Need Guidance in the Change Process • Nondirective View Has Trust in the Client's Own Ability to Make Change

  7. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Integrative Approach • Few Are Strictly Deterministic, Antideterministic, Directive, or Nondirective • Most People Today Take On an Integrative Approach Which Reflects Their Own Views of Human Nature

  8. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Major Theoretical Orientations Psychodynamic Approach  Originated by the Psychoanalytic Approach of Sigmund Freud  Freud Started Using Hypnosis: E.g., Conversion Reaction in Patients  Freud Developed a Complex Theory of Development See Chapter 5

  9. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • The Psychodynamic View of Human Nature  More Deterministic than Other Approaches: Freud, Others e.g., Kohut, Erikson, Adler, Jung  Believes That Drives Motivate Behavior and are Somewhat Unconscious  Believes Perceptions of our Childhood and Actual Events in Combination with Our Drives Affects Our Psyche and our Later Adult Development  Purpose: To Help the Person Understand Childhood Experiences, and How, in Combination with the Individual's Drives, They Motivate the Person.

  10. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Key Concepts of the Psychodynamic Approach Developmental Stages Especially Freud  Early Patterns of Behaviors Are Repeated with our Significant Others  Transference • The Human Service Professional's Use of the Psychodynamic Approach Offers a Developmental Model to Understand the Individual  Helps Us Particularly to Understand Deviant Behavior  Gives Us an Understanding of the Importance of “Countertransference”

  11. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Behavioral Approach Three Main Orientations Classical Conditioning Pavlov: CS Paired with UCS yields UCR  Operant Conditioning Skinner: Skinner Box  Social‑learning, or Modeling Bandura: Bobo Dolls

  12. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • The Behavioral View of Human Nature All Behavior is Learned  We are Conditioned by Reinforcers in our Environment  Antideterministic: What was Learned Can Be Relearned

  13. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Some Applications of the Behavioral Approach  Token Economy  Treatment of Phobias  Learning of Assertive Behavior • The Human Service Professional's Use of the Behavioral Approach  One of the Most Commonly Used Approaches  E.g., Token Economies with the Mentally Retarded  E.g., Use of Reinforcement e.g., Weight Loss, Behavior Change, Stop Smoking  E.g., Modeling via Role‑playing

  14. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Humanistic Approach  Some Key People: Carl Rogers, Rollo May, and Abraham Maslow  Highlights the Strengths and Positive Aspects of the Individual

  15. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • The Humanistic View of Human Nature  Origins in Existential Philosophy and Phenomenology  Antideterministic: We Have Choices and We Constantly Create Our Existence  Born with Some Type of Actualizing Tendency

  16. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK Key Concepts of the Humanistic Approach Person‑centered Approach of Carl Rogers  Empathy, Unconditional Positive Regard, & Genuineness  Maslow: Hierarchical Approach of Needs The Human Service Professional's Use of the Humanistic Approach Maslow's Hierarchy: A way of understanding the development of the person  Empathy, Being Nonjudgmental, & Being Genuine: Essential Qualities & Skills  Importance of the Helper/Client Relationship has Become Key

  17. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Cognitive Approach Two Key Theorists: Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck  Stresses How Cognitions Affect our Behaviors and How we Feel

  18. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • The Cognitive View of Human Nature  Not Born with Innate Goodness or Evil, Rational or Irrational Beings  Thinking Can Be Changed Through Counterconditioning  Antideterministic: We can Change Thinking, and Ultimately Behaviors and Feelings

  19. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Key Concepts of the Cognitive Approach Less Emphasis on Qualities of the Helper/Client Relationship  Stresses Importance of Extinguishing Past Destructive Ways of Thinking  Stresses Importance of Practicing New, Positive Ways of Thinking

  20. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • The Human Service Professional's Use of the Cognitive Approach Have Not Been Widely Adopted, but Could Be Beneficial For Clients  Helping Clients Understand the Connection Between Thinking, Behaving, and Feeling Can Dramatically Impact How They Interact in the World

  21. Cross Theoretical Approaches • Eclecticism or Integrative Approaches to Counseling Draws from a Number of Different Orientations  Not “Shooting from the Hip”: Must Carefully Reflect on View of Human Nature  Formation of an Eclectic Approach Is a Developmental Process: 1 - Chaos Stage 2 - Coalescent Stage 3 - Theoretical Integration Stage 4 - Metatheory Stage

  22. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Brief and Solution‑focused Counseling Defined as Anywhere from a 2 to 50 Sessions  Garfield Suggests Four Stages: 1 Building the Relationship and Assessing the Problem 2 Developing a Plan for the Client and Working on the Problem 3 Reformulating Plan Based on New Info & Client Feedback 4 Termination

  23. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Gender Aware Approaches Feminist Therapy and Men’s Issues Therapy  Considers Gender Central to the Helping Relationship  Views Problems Within Social Context & Examines Gender Injustices  Encourages Collaborative and Equal Relationship with Client  Client’s Choose Gender Roles Regardless of Political Correctness

  24. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Ethical and Professional Issues • The Importance of Supervision for the Human Service Professional Helps You Review: 1 View of Human Nature, 2 Theoretical Approach, 3 Effectiveness  Should Continue as Long as One Is Working with Clients  Supervisor Roles: 1 Assuring the Welfare of the Client 2 Assuring Ethical, Legal, and Professional Standards are Upheld 3 Overseeing Development of and Evaluating the Supervisee

  25. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • Confidentiality and the Helping Relationship • When to Keep Confidentiality and When to Break it see p. 82-83 of book • Tarasoff Case and Breaking Confidentiality • Refer to NOHSE Ethical Guidelines • Difference Between Confidentiality and Privileged Communication • Dual Relationships and the Human Service Professional Refers to things like: Social, Work, Sexual Relationships with Clients Unethical and May Be Illegal See NOHSE Ethical Guidelines

  26. CHAPTER 3THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO HUMAN SERVICE WORK • The Developmentally Mature Human Service Professional: Committed to a Counseling Approach and Willing to Change Commitment with Relativism: Reflecting on Different Approaches, Choosing an Approach, Being Willing to Change as You Receive New Info