Trait approaches to personality Gabija Kiburtaitė Psbns09-02
Trait theory – a model of personality that seeks to identify the basic traits necessary to describe personality. • Traits – consistent personality characteristics and behaviors displayed in different situations.
Four Temperaments • Developed by Hyppocrates (460-370 BC) as medical theory • I. Pavlov researched how dogs with different temperaments reacts to stimuli • Sanguine • Choleric • Melancholic • Phlegmatic
Sixteen Personality factors • Developed by R. Cattell (1965) using factors analysis • List of all 16 traits: • Vigilance • Abstractedness • Privateness • Apprehension • Openness to Change • Self-Reliance • Perfectionism • Tension • Warm • Reasoning • Emotional Stability • Dominance • Liveliness • Rule-Consciousness • Social Boldness • Sensitivity
Eyesenck’s Theory • This theory was also developed using factors analysis. • R. Cattell used inductive method, while H. Eyesenck used deductive one. • 3 main personality traits: extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism. • These 3 traits are largely unrelated.
The Five Factor Model • Five-factor personality inventory was created in 1985 by P. T. Costa and R. R. McCare. • Main 5 personality traits are Extraversion, Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Agreebleness and Openness to experience. • These 5 factors can be abbreviated as OCEAN. • Each of 5 factors has 6 subfactors called facets. • The Big Five is the most popular and influential trait approach today.
Extraversion • Extraversion means energy, positive emotions and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.
Neuroticism • Neuroticism is an enduring tendency to experience negative emotional states. Neuroticism
Conscientiousness • Conscientiousness includes traits like being organized and planful.
Which room’s owner more likely has high conscientiousness? Which one of 6 facets of conscientiousness these pictures represent?
Agreebleness • Agreebleness trait distinguishes soft-hearted people from ruthless ones.
Openness to experience • Openness to experience trait distinguishes people who prefer variety from whose who prefer familiar and traditional things. Itincludes traits like having wide interests and being imaginative.
Conclusions • Everyone has the same personality traits at varying degree. • There are many different trait theories, but no one of them can encompass the whole personality. • Trait theories allow easy comparison between individuals. • Trait theories only describe personality – they do not explain it.
References • Feldman R. S. Understanding Psychology. 9th ed. // McGraw-Hill: Higher Education, Boston, 2009. • Ryckman R. M. Theories of personality. 9thed. // Thomson Wadsworth, Belmont, 2008. • Feist J., Feist G. J. Theories of personality. 7thed. // McGraw- Hill, Boston, 2006. • Engler B. Personality Theories: An Introduction.8thed. // Wadsworth: Cengage Learning, Belmont, 2009. • Pictures: • http://www.creativeclass.com/creative_class/_wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/personality.jpg • http://edtechvision.wikispaces.com/file/view/Holland03Jobs.gif/32785499/Holland03Jobs.gif • http://www.committedmarriage.com/images/Personality.jpg • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6b/Four_temperament.PNG • http://www.greekmedicine.net/images/Individual%20Temperament.jpg • http://thebloggersdesktop.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/personality_business_owners.jpg • http://www.savagechickens.com/images/chickenextravert.jpg • http://lazylaces.brinkster.net/pics/center_tidy_room.jpg • http://www.slimyfish.net/images/blog/messy.jpg • http://www.trans4mind.com/personality/eysenck_chart.png • http://is1.okcupid.com/users/800/424/8014240653472578259/mt1166926835.jpg • http://customersrock.files.wordpress.com/2007/06/people.jpg • http://www.davidgeere.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/MessyDesk.jpg • http://www.nancysteinbockposters.com/posters/images/friendliness.jpg • http://www.toxel.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/mutabledesigns24.jpg