Europe in the Middle Ages(Medieval times, Middle Ages, Dark Ages) A prequel to Chapter 1
In the fifth century, the Roman Empire broke down. • Europe was politically fragmented, with Germanic kings ruling a number of dissimilar kingdoms. • Self-sufficient farming estates called manors were the primary centers of food production. • Manors grew from the need for self-sufficiency and self-defense. • The lord of a manor had almost unlimited power over his agricultural workers—the serfs.
During the early medieval period, a class of nobles emerged and developed into mounted knights. • Landholding and military service became almost inseparable.
The complex network of relationships between landholding and the obligation to provide military service to a lord is often referred to as feudalism. • Kings were weak because they depended on their vassals. • For most medieval people, the lord’s manor was the government. • Noble women were pawns in marriage politics. Women could own land, however, and non-noble women worked alongside the men. • The medieval diet in the north was based on beer, lard or butter, and bread. In the south, the staples were wheat, wine, and olive oil.
One of the most powerful institutions of the Middle Ages was the Catholic Church. • The Church owned large tracts of land • Monasteries were an escape for those that wanted out of the marriage plots and often unfair inheritance laws. • Most of the educated people of the time were members of the clergy. • The Church often offered relief in disasters and charity to the poor
No one could predict or protect you from the plague • Boils, pain, fever, swelling, black tongue… Not pretty. • Huge death tools all over Europe • Resulted in a new attitude about life • Led to higher wages and better living conditions.
Chapter 1: European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300-1600 Two movements, the Renaissance and the Reformation, usher in dramatic social and cultural changes in Europe.
Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance • The Italian Renaissance is a rebirth of learning that produces many great works of art and literature. • The “rebirth” refers to the Renaissance artists’, writers’, and philosophers’ focus on a return to classic Greek and Roman principles.
Why Italy? Italy had 3 major advantages: • thriving cities • a wealthy merchant class • the heritage of classical Greece and Rome.
City-States • Italy was not a united country, but instead a group of individual city-states • The Crusades spurred trade • Increased trade led to growth of the city-states in northern Italy and the growth of the merchant class • In 1300s bubonic plague killed 60% of population which disrupted the economy • Survivors then demanded higher wages
Wealthy merchant class • A wealthy merchant class develops • More emphasis on individual achievement • Wealthy merchant families begin to play a major role in governing the city-states • Banking family, the Medici, controls Florence • Wealthy merchants began to use art as a way to display their wealth and status.
The legacy of Greece and Rome • Rebirth of Greek and Roman art styles and philosophy, known as “classics” • Artists and scholars study ruins of Rome along with Latin and Greek manuscripts • Scholars move to Rome after fall of Constantinople in 1453
Worldly Values • Classics Lead to Humanism • Humanism—intellectual movement focused on human achievements • Humanists studied classical texts, history, literature, philosophy • Worldly Pleasures • Renaissance society was secular—worldly • Wealthy enjoyed fine food, homes, clothes
In the Middle Ages artists were not paid very well and gained very little fame, that changed in the Renaissance. Patrons of the Arts • Patron—a financial supporter of artists • Church leaders spend money on artworks to beautify cities • Wealthy merchants also patrons of the arts
The Renaissance Man • Excels in many fields: the classics, art, politics, combat • Baldassare Castiglione’s The Courtier (1528) • The book teaches how to become a “universal” person • Most famous example is probably Leonardo da Vinci • More on da Vinci later…
The Renaissance Woman • Upper-class, educated in classics, charming • Expected to inspire art but not create it • Isabella d’Este, patron of artists, wields power in Mantua
The Renaissance Revolutionized Art • Artistic Styles Change • Artists use realistic style copied from classical art, often to portray religious subjects • Painters use perspective—a way to show three dimensions on a canvas • Realistic Painting and Sculpture • Realistic portraits of prominent citizens • Sculpture shows natural postures and expressions • The biblical David is a favorite subject among sculptors
Michelangelo • Painter and sculptor • the Sistine Chapel • The David
Leonardo, Renaissance Man • Leonardo da Vinci—painter, sculptor, inventor, scientist • Paints one of the best-known portraits in the world: the Mona Lisa • Famous religious painting: The Last Supper
Leonardo da Vinci • Da Vinci was so much more than painter in the early 1500s, he was a sculptor, inventor, writer, anatomist, engineer, astronomer, and much more!
Raphael Advances Realism • Raphael Sanzio, famous for his use of perspective • Favorite subject: the Madonna and child • Famous painting: School of Athens
Anguissola and Gentileschi • Sofonisba Anguissola: first woman artist to gain world renown • Artemisia Gentileschi paints strong, heroic women
Renaissance Writers Change Literature • New Trends in Writing • Writers use the vernacular—their native language • Self-expression or to portray individuality of the subject • Machievelli Advises Rulers • NiccolòMachievelli, author of political guidebook, The Prince • The Prince examines how rulers can gain and keep power
In the 1400s, the ideas of the Italian Renaissance begin to spread to Northern Europe. Section 2: The northern Renaissance
Renaissance Ideas Spread • Spirit of Renaissance Italy impresses visitors from northern Europe • When Hundred Years’War ends (1453), cities grow rapidly • between England and France over who would rule France • Merchants in northern cities grow wealthy and sponsor artists • England and France unify under strong monarchs who are art patrons • Northern Renaissance artists interested in realism • Humanists interested in social reform based on Judeo-Christian values
Northern Artists • German Painters • Albrecht Dürer’s woodcuts and engravings emphasize realism • Hans Holbein the Younger paints portraits, often of English royalty • Flemish Painters • Flanders is the artistic center of northern Europe • Jan van Eyck, pioneer in oil-based painting, uses layers of paint • Van Eyck’s paintings are realistic and reveal subject’s personality • Pieter Bruegel captures scenes of peasant life with realistic details
Northern Humanists • Criticize the Catholic Church, start Christian humanism • Want to reform society and promote education, particularly for women • Christian Humanists • Desiderius Erasmus of Holland is best-known Christian humanist • His book, The Praise of Folly, pokes fun at merchants and priests • Thomas More of England creates a model society in his book Utopia
Queen Elizabeth I • Renaissance spreads to England in mid-1500s • Period known as the Elizabethan Age, after Queen Elizabeth I • Elizabeth reigns from 1558 to 1603
William Shakespeare • Shakespeareis often regarded as the greatest playwright • Born in Stratford-upon-Avon in 1564 • Plays performed at London’s Globe Theater
Printing Changes the World! • Chinese and Korean Invention • Movable type, around 1000 • It uses a separate piece of type for each character • Gutenberg Improves the Printing Process • Around 1440 JohannGutenberg of Germany develops printing press • Printing press allows for quick, cheap book production • First book printed with movable type, Gutenberg Bible (1455)
Legacy and Lasting Impression of the Renaissance • Changes in the Arts • Art influenced by classical Greece and Rome • Realistic portrayals of individuals and nature • Art is both secular and religious • Writers use vernacular • Art praises individual achievement
Changes in Society • Printing makes information widely available • Illiterate people benefit by having books read to them • Published accounts of maps and charts lead to more discoveries • Published legal proceedings make rights clearer to people • Political structures and religious practices are questioned
The Protestant Reformation • 1517-Martin Luther nails his 95 Theses to the church door **Beginning of Protestant Reformation • Luther questioned the Catholic Church and its corruption and his followers became known as the Lutheran Church
Section 3: Luther Leads a Reformation • By 1500, Renaissance values emphasizing the individual and worldly life weakened the influence of the Church. • At the same time, many people sharply criticized the Church for some of its practices.
Popes seemed more concerned with luxury and political power than with spiritual matters. • Critics resented the fact that they paid taxes to support the Church in Rome. • The lower clergy had faults. Many local priests lacked education and couldn’t teach people. Others took actions that broke their vows as priests.
In the past, reformers had urged that the Church change its ways to become more spiritual and humble. Christian humanists such as Erasmus and More added their voices to calls for change. • In the early 1500s, the calls grew louder. • In 1517, a German monk and professor named Martin Luther protested some actions of a Church official.
That person was selling what were called indulgences. By paying money to the Church, people thought they could win salvation. Luther challenged this practice and others. • He posted a written protest on the door of a castle church. His words were quickly printed and began to spread throughout Germany.
Thus began the Reformation, the movement for reform that led to the founding of new Christian churches. • Soon Luther pushed for broader changes. He said that people could win salvation only through faith, not good works. He said that religious beliefs should be based on the Bible alone and that the pope had no real authority. • He said that each person was equal before God. He or she did not need a priest to explain the Bible to them.