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Europe in the Middle Ages

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  1. Europe in the Middle Ages Chapter 10

  2. Peasants, Trade, and Cities • Between 1000 and 1300 the population doubled from 38 million to 74 million • It was more peaceful • Led to expansion in food production • Better climate • Had more land due to trees being cut down and swamps being drained • More advanced technology such as the carruca—a heavy, wheeled plow, and the horse collar

  3. Peasants, Trade, and Cities • They also shifted to the three field system

  4. Peasants, Trade, and Cities • A manor was an agricultural estate run by a lord and worked by peasants • Most peasant were not free at this point, instead they were serfs (~60%) • A serf is a peasant legally bound to the land • About half of the manor was land worked for the lord, the rest was the peasants’ land • Anything they caught, killed or cultivated they had to give part to the lord (this was how they paid rent) • They were also required to tithe (give 10% to the church)

  5. Peasants, Trade, and Cities • Peasant homes were simple—one or two rooms • Thatched roofs, a hearth for warmth • Had little privacy

  6. Peasants, Trade, and Cities • See p. 318 for “Cycle of Labor” • Peasants ate and drank fairly well • Their diet included bread, veggies, fruit, berries, eggs, cheese and sometimes meat (usually on feast days) • Their beverage of choice was ale (the upper class drank wine) • Hard to find good, pure drinking water

  7. Peasants, Trade, and Cities • Trade flourished in the Middle Ages in cities like Venice and Flanders • As trade increased so did the demand for gold and silver coins • Slowly, a money economy emerged • Led to new trading companies and banking firms • Also led to commercial capitalism—economic system where people invest in trade and goods to make a profit (sound familiar?)

  8. Peasants, Trade, and Cities • New towns began to develop, particularly next to castles • If the city expanded enough they would build a wall around it • The artisans and merchants that lived their were called bourgeoisie, or people in “a walled enclosure”

  9. Peasants, Trade, and Cities • Townspeople developed their own governments • This came after the lord sold them these liberties • They allowed citizens to vote for city council—judges, and city officials—law makers • The elections were rigged so that only patricians—members of the wealthiest class—won

  10. Peasants, Trade, and Cities • Life in the cities had advantages and drawbacks • You were safe inside the city walls from attacks • You were not safe from fires (common) • You had access to public baths • They were shut down because of plague • Cities smelled, air pollution was a problem • Water was infested with animal waste from slaughter houses • Women were nearly completely independent

  11. Peasants, Trade, and Cities • Read p. 322 “Industry and Guilds”

  12. Christianity and Medieval Civilization • Controversy arose during the Middle Ages between the Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII • Gregory VII spoke out against the practice of lay investiture—which is where a secular ruler gave nominees to church offices the symbols of their spiritual authority (a ring and staff) • He argued that the pope’s authority extended over all on earth, including rulers

  13. Christianity and Medieval Civilization • This became known as the Investiture Controversy • It was not settled until Henry IV and Gregory VII died • The new pope and king came up with the Concordat of Worms (VERMS) • They said that a new bishop would be invested his earthly power by the king and representative of the pope would present the new bishop with his spiritual authority gifts

  14. Christianity and Medieval Civilization • Pope Innocent III used spiritual weapons to achieve his political ends • He was issue an interdict—forbids priests from giving sacraments to the local church • Sacraments are Christian rites • This would cause the people to put pressure on their lord • King Philip of France had to take his wife back due to this type of pressure tactic

  15. Christianity and Medieval Civilization • Read P. 325-326, “New Religious Orders” • Know that Hildegard of Bingen played an important role in the development of Gregorian chant • She was one of the first women to be involved with music

  16. Christianity and Medieval Civilization • Two new religious orders that had a strong impact on ordinary peoples’ lives were the Franciscans and the Dominicans • The Franciscans were founded by Saint Francis of Assisi • Although born rich, he abandoned worldly goods and lived in poverty • Due to his simplicity, joyful nature and love for others, others began to follow him

  17. Christianity and Medieval Civilization • The Dominican order was founded by Dominic de Guzmán • He wanted to protect the church from heresy—the denial of basic church doctrines • He believed those who lived lives of poverty would be most effective to teach against heresy

  18. Christianity and Medieval Civilization • The Church developed the Inquisition—a court for heretics • If they confessed they would have to perform public penance and were flogged • If you did it again, you were executed • Those who did not confess and were found guilty were executed

  19. Christianity and Medieval Civilization • Read p. 327-328 “Popular Religion in the High Middle Ages” • Know that relics were bones and such from saints • They were worthy of worship because they provided a link between the earthly world and God

  20. The Culture of The High Middle Ages • Universities were created in the High Middle Ages • Comes from Latin “universitas” meaning “corporation” • The first appeared in Bologna, It. • The first professor was Irnerius who taught Roman law • A second, University of Paris was founded and then a division from there moved and opened the Oxford in England • It became very honorable to open new universities • By 1500 there were 80 universities

  21. The Culture of The High Middle Ages • University curriculum consisted of grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy • Teacher lectured, meaning “to read”, from a book could buy a textbook in those days • Students were given an oral exam by a committee of teachers • Taken only after 4-6 years of study • You could earn a bachelors degree, later a masters • After this, you could go to study law, medicine or theology (took 10 years) • After you earned a doctor’s degree, you were allowed to teach or pursue a career in your field

  22. The Culture of The High Middle Ages • By the 12th c. theology was influenced by scholasticism • Scholasticism tries to reconcile faith and reason—showed what was accepted in faith could be learned through reason and experience • Tried to harmonize Greek philosophy with Christian teachings

  23. The Culture of The High Middle Ages • Saint Thomas Aquinas is one of the most famous scholasticists • He wrote Summa Theologica (A Summa of Theology) • While Latin was the universal language it was not the common language, or vernacular • In the 12th c. literature was beginning to be written in vernacular, such as English or French

  24. Early Christian Architecture

  25. Romanesque Architecture

  26. Gothic ArchitectureFlying Buttresses

  27. Gothic Architecture

  28. The Late Middle Ages • Europe had reached its high point by the 13th c. • During the 14th c. that would all changes thanks to the Black Death • The Bubonic Plague came from black rats infested with fleas that carried a deadly bacterium • It started in Sicily in 1347 and spread throughout Europe and into Asia by 1351

  29. The Late Middle Ages • Out of 75 million Europeans, 38 million died • Italy lost 50-60% of its population • Entire German and English villages died • Some people became anti-Semitic (anti-Jew) blaming them for the outbreak • Jews fled to Poland to be protected • Because of economic decline serfs bargained their way out of owing services to the lord

  30. The Late Middle Ages • Read p. 337 “The Decline of Church Power” • The Great Schism came from the existence of two popes—Urban VI in Rome, and a French pope • This divided the Church and its followers since both Popes denounced the other as the Antichrist • It wasn’t until 1417 that a new pope was elected and both agreed to his power

  31. The Late Middle Ages • Read p. 337-340 • Do p. 340 #1-2, 4-5