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Europe in the Middle Ages

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  1. Europe in the Middle Ages

  2. Feudalism and the Manor System Chapter 5 Section 1

  3. The Middle Ages • The Middle Ages began with the collapse of the Roman Empire. • The term “Middle Ages” (also called the “Medieval” period) describes the years between ancient times and modern times.

  4. The Fall of the Roman Empire • Invaders destroyed Roman towns and cut off trade routes • By about 500 A.D., the Roman Empire in Western Europe had completely collapsed • It was replaced by a patchwork of small kingdoms.

  5. The Franks • They claimed the area called Gaul (modern day France) • The name “France” comes from the word “Franks” • In 768, a skilled military leader named Charlemagne became king of the Franks.

  6. Charlemagne's Empire • At the time, many small kingdoms in Europe were often at war with on another. • Charlemagne expanded his kingdom by conquering these weaker kingdoms • He ruled an empire that stretched across Western Europe

  7. King Charlemagne • Charlemagne ruled for nearly 50 years • During his reign he worked hard to keep Western Europe united • He established schools to promote learning, issued money and improve the economy and spread Christianity.

  8. Charlemagne’s Death • After Charlemagne’s death his empire was divided among his three sons. • They fought each other, weakening the empire. • Other groups also attacked the weakened empire, perhaps the fiercest attacks were made by the Vikings

  9. Attacks From the North • The Vikings came from the far north of Europe (present day Denmark, Sweden, and Norway) • They were skilled sailors and tough warriors • Relying on surprise, the Vikings burned and looted European towns • They also reopened trade routes throughout Europe

  10. The Feudal System • Under feudalism, land was owned by kings or lords but held by vassals in return for their loyalty • In medieval Europe, power belonged to those who controlled the land. • They gave a share of land, called a fief to each of their vassals • A vassal promised to follow the landowners laws and fight for him

  11. The Feudal System

  12. The Manor System • Feudalism was the way medieval Europeans organized power and government. • Manorialism was the way they organized their economy • The Manor was a large estate that included farm fields, pastures, and often and entire village • It also included a large house called the manor house, where the lord, or ruler, of the manor lived

  13. Lords and Manors • The lord of the manor was typically a vassal of a king or of a more powerful lord. • The manor was part of his fief • Most manors were far from towns, villages and other manors so they had to be self-sufficient (or able to supply their own needs) • Food, clothing, and other things needed by the people who lived on the manor were made there.

  14. The Role of Noblewomen • Women of the noble class also played an important part in the feudal system • She managed the household, performed necessary medical tasks, and supervised servants • When her husband or father was away fighting she often served as “lord of the Manor” making important decisions.

  15. Peasants • The majority of people in medieval Europe were peasants • Peasants made their living as farmers or laborers • They were often very poor and did all of the work on the manor • They farmed the lord’s fields to raise food for the household. • They were only allowed to farm a small strip of land for themselves (even so they had to give part of their own harvest to their lord)

  16. Serfs • Serfs were peasants who were considered to be part of the manor • When a noble was given a manor as part of his fief, its serfs became his • They could not leave the manor or even get married without his permission

  17. A Hard Life • Medieval peasants lived and worked a hard life • Men, women and children were all required to work • They often lived in one-room huts • For heating and cooking they built a fire on the dirt floor • Smoke filled the dark, cramped interior before drifting out of a hole in the roof

  18. A Hard Life • Peasants ate simple foods such as black bread, cabbage, and turnips • They rarely ate meat, since animals of the manor and surrounding the land were reserved for the lord • At night they slept on mattresses made out of cloth and stuffed with straw

  19. The Church and the Rise of Cities Chapter 5 Section 2

  20. Gothic Cathedrals • Most Gothic cathedrals were built in Western Europe between 1100 and 1400. • Gothic refers to the style of architecture • A cathedral was the church of a bishop (an important leader of the Roman Catholic Church) • During the Middle Ages, nearly all people in Western Europe were Roman Catholic.

  21. Religious Power of the Church • During the Middle Ages life was short and hard for most people • They were comforted by the Christian belief that they would enjoy the rewards of heaven after death if they lived according to the Church teachings • The Church also held that if people didn’t obey those rules, they would be punished after death. • The promise of reward combined with the threat of punishment made most people follow the teachings of the Church

  22. Economic Power of the Church • The Church gained great wealth by collecting taxes • It also took fiefs from lords in exchange for services performed by the clergy • In fact the Church was the single largest owner of land in Europe during the Middle Ages!

  23. Political Power of the Church • The combination of religious and economic power allowed the church to grow politically • They made laws and set up courts to enforce them • People who did not obey the Church were threatened with excommunication • Excommunication means being from membership in the Church and participation in Church life

  24. Church Organization • The Church was highly organized • Almost every village had a Priest • Bishops supervised the Priests • An Archbishop supervised several Bishops • Archbishops were under the authority of the Pope • The Papacy was based in Rome

  25. The Church in Everyday Life • The Medieval Church touched nearly all aspects of life • During the Middle Ages, the clergy were almost always in attendance to offer a blessing or to perform a service

  26. Monasteries and Convents • Some religious men felt that they should dedicate their lives to God by living together in religious communities called monasteries. • Religious women, called nuns, lived in similar communities called covenants

  27. Scholasticism • Some Christian scholars studies ancient Greek texts that said people should use reason to discover truth • This went against the teachings of the Church • So medieval scholars made a system that used reason to support Christian beliefs

  28. The Revival of Trade • As people felt safer they began to travel more and learn more about distant places • Ancient trade routes came into use again bringing goods from Africa and Asia into Europe

  29. The Growth of Towns • At first, local goods were traded in markets of small villages • As trade grew so did these markets • Traders chose convenient locations for travelers • Also at this time manors were becoming overcrowded • Many lords gladly allowed peasants to buy their freedom and move to the new growing towns

  30. The Rise of the Middle Class • Town life was very different than the farm or manor life • Towns and cities were not self-sufficient • Their economies were based on the exchange of goods and services • A new class developed between nobles and peasants made up of merchants, traders and craft workers

  31. The Role of Guilds • A guild included all the people who practiced a certain trade or craft • Guilds set prices and prevented outsiders from selling goods in town • It took a long time to become a member of a guild • Between the ages of 8 to 14, a boy who wanted to learn a certain trade became an apprentice (an unpaid worker being trained in a craft) • He would then work in the home of the master of that trade for as long as 7 years • Then he could become a journeyman (salaried worker), in time if guild officials judged that the journeyman’s work met their standards, he could join the guild

  32. Medieval Culture • The growing cities attracted traveling scholars and young men flocked to schools • Knights also lived by a code of honorable conduct called Chivalry • Many stories were told about knights and their brave deeds

  33. Overcrowding and Disease • Medieval towns and cities were extremely crowded • These towns also had a lack of sanitation • The Bubonic Plague, called the Black Death, killed 1/3 of Europe's population between 1347 and 1351 • It was spread by fleas living on rats that thrived in the unsanitary towns