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Unit 12: The Civil War. 1861-1865. Southern States Begin to Secede (withdraw) from the Union. The North- Trying to abolish slavery The South- Trying to preserve slavery – a way of life.

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southern states begin to secede withdraw from the union
Southern States Begin to Secede (withdraw) from the Union
  • The North-Trying to abolish slavery
  • The South-Trying to preserve slavery – a way of life.
  • South Carolina becomes the 1st state to secede –other Southern states follow – the Civil War would start not because of slavery but to bring the Confederacy back into the Union.
union vs confederacy
Union vs Confederacy
  • United States split in two
  • North-The Union
  • South-The Confederacy
  • During the Civil War there were a total of 35 States.
  • Union = 24 states
  • Confederacy = 11 states
capitals and presidents
Capitals and Presidents


Abraham Lincoln

Washington D.C.


Jefferson Davis

Richmond, Virginia

strategies of the war
Strategies of the War

The North

Kill the Southern Economy

1. Destroy Farms & Fields

2. Blockade the Southern coast (Nothing in or out)

The South

Play Defense

1. Let the war come to them.

2. Figured the North would tire of the war and cost.

the north
The North


  • More people (22 million)
  • 85% of all factories located in the North (Could make more and better supplies)
  • More railroads, naval ships, weapons, and supplies.
  • More $ - could pay their troops


  • Most of the war was to be fought in the South.
  • Many Northern soldiers were not fighting to end slavery.
  • Most soldiers were young and inexperienced and looking for adventure.
the south
The South


  • Great leaders and generals (Robert E. Lee)
  • Fighting a defensive war (home field advantage, knew the land)
  • They were fighting for a purpose – a way of life.


  • Few factories to make supplies
  • Smaller population (9 million and 3.5 million were slaves)
  • Poorly equipped and lack of supplies – many men had to supply their own weapons/equipment and food.
both the north and south would be hurt by this war
Both the North and South would be hurt by this war
  • The North relied on the South for their cotton to run their textile factories and food to feed their huge population.
  • The South relied on the North to buy their cotton and food to make a living.
soldiers of the war
Soldiers of the war
  • Wide range of ages – 12-80 – Average age about 24 for the Union and 18 for the Confederates.
  • About 15% of all soldiers were younger than 18 when they enlisted
  • Most had NO military experience at all
  • Farmers – made up largest % of soldiers – 50%
soldiers continued
Soldiers continued
  • Immigrants – many immigrants would be recruited the minute they set foot in the U.S. – Largest Groups

1. Germans-about 175,000

2. Irish-about 150,000

3. Canadians – 25,000

  • African Americans-not allowed to fight early on in the war – used as labor workers- as the war began to drag on, the North allowed them to fight.
soldiers cont
Soldiers Cont.
  • Native Americans- Served on both sides for many purposes.
  • (About 3,600 served the Union; Confederate #’s not known)

Colors and Numbers

  • Union- standard color was blue – nearly 2 million served during the four-year war
  • Confederacy- standard color was gray – nearly 1 million soldiers served during the four-year war.
  • Contraband- Southern slaves who joined the Union army in the South
  • Copperheads- People who opposed the Civil War.
  • Regiment- Usually around 1,000 troops
  • Brigade-About 4 Regiments – around 4000 soldiers
  • Artillery-Cannons or big guns-wore a red band
  • “Napoleon”-Most popular cannon
  • Cavalry-horse back soldiers-wore a yellow band
  • Infantry-Foot soldiers –wore a light blue band
  • Yankee (Billy Yank)-nickname for Union soldiers
  • Rebel (Johnny Reb)- Confederate soldier nickname
new technology
New Technology

The Civil War has also been called the 1stmodern war

  • First war to be photographed – thousands of pictures taken by – Matthew Brady – famous photographer of the war.
  • Railroads were 1st used to transport troops and supplies
technology continued
Technology Continued

3. Telegraphs were sometimes used for communication – lines often cut through

4. Ironclad ships were used for the 1st time instead of wood ships.

technology continued1
Technology Continued

5. Hot Air balloons for spying

  • Submarines which used torpedoes (Naval Mines)
  • Trench Warfare – dug in positions
8 new weapons
8. New Weapons
  • Long ranged rifles replaced the short ranged musket- most commonly used weapon among the infantry
  • Hand grenades- hardly ever used – did not work well.
  • Carbine rifles – used cartridges (breech loading) instead of the step by step muzzle loading – very expensive – not many used in Civil War
  • Land Mines
  • Machine Guns –Gatlin gun (not used much)
  • Minieball- new slug used for rifles- expanded and used rifling to spin- could shoot 600 yards accurately up to 1000 yards
civil war medicine
Civil War Medicine
  • Medical practices were very primitive compared to today’s standards
  • Not much for pain medicine – chloroform, alcohol, ether, or the brand new drug morphine.
  • Disease was the #1 killer in the Civil War – typhoid killed more than anything else
  • No antibiotics yet
  • If you were wounded – amputation – the cutting off of ones limb – was usually the treatment to prevent infection (gangrene)
civil war statistics
Civil War Statistics
  • Bloodiest War in U.S. history

Union Deaths =360,000


Confederate Deaths=260,000

Total Deaths in the Civil War=620,000

-If you added all of our wars French & Indian, Revolutionary, War of 1812, Mexican War, Spanish/American War, WWI, WWII, Korean War, Vietnam War, and our current wars the total number of deaths would not equal the Civil War.

2. 2% of the Entire US population killed compared to .3% in WWII. (2%=over 7million today)

civil war statistics cont
Civil War Statistics Cont.

3. There was an estimated 2,261 (major) battles fought during the Civil War- 11 of which were in the Dakota Territory.

  • U.S. Debt after the war = $2,845,000,000
  • About 10,000 Union troops were under the minimum age of 18 years old – soldiers would write 18 on the bottoms of shoes so they wouldn’t have to lie about their age.
  • About 130,000 freed slave would join the Union in the South and nearly 200,000 African Americans would join the Union Army.
deaths in american wars
Deaths in American Wars

The numbers of Civil War dead were not equaled by the combined toll of other American conflicts until the War in Vietnam. Some believe the number is as high as 850,000