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The Fight for Civil rights UNIT 14

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  1. The Fight for Civil rightsUNIT 14 The First Generation of Civil Rights Leaders

  2. Civil Rights Terms and Laws • Civil Rights: the rights of citizens…any citizens! • Free speech, freedom of religion, trial by jury of peers, property ownership, voting, travel… • ALL guaranteed by the Bill of Rights in our Constitution. • Segregation: separation of races • May also separate by many characteristics. • Civil Rights Act of 1875: equal accommodations for blacks and whites, including the right to serve on juries… • 1883: Supreme Court ruled unconstitutional

  3. Plessy v. ferguson Supreme Court ruling that created the separate-but-equal concept… • Train passenger in Louisiana sued for the right to ride where he pleased. Segregation the law of the land until 1954 Allowed for the segregation of facilities • Jim Crow Laws • i.e.…Separate restrooms, water fountains railroad cars, waiting rooms, dining rooms Blacks were allowed to vote in “general” November elections, however most states prohibited blacks from voting in primaries. 1943: In front of Greyhound Station Rome, Georgia

  4. Booker T. Washington • Preached Education and Patience • Born into a slave family in 1856 Virginia • Believed economic independence for blacks would lead to social and political equality • Established the Tuskegee Institute • Atlanta Compromise speech on social equality

  5. W.E.B. Dubois • ACTIVISM…”The Here and Now” • Believed in social activism… • Blacks needed to unite and actively work towards equality • Member of the Niagara Movement • A group of black educators and professional men who met secretly to eliminate discrimination • Lynching: Illegal hangings W.E.B Dubois

  6. Atlanta Race Riot of 1906 Due to false stories and reports in newspapers and by officials • Whites and blacks rioted in downtown Atlanta Martial Law declared to regain control • Military Rule 18 blacks and 3 whites died…100s were injured…property damage excessive Newspaper clippings from era

  7. The NAAcp • National Assoc. for the Advancement of Colored People • Formed by members of the Niagara Movement and white liberals • Founded in 1909 by Oswald Garrison Villard • Work towards the rights of black Americans

  8. Back-to-Africa Movement • Marcus Garvey and Bishop Henry Turner… • Promised cheap transportation to Liberia (Africa) for the purpose of establishing colonies. • Program was a scam to take advantage of the under privileged blacks The Lauradadeparting for Liberia

  9. National Urban League • Inter-racial group that worked to solve problems facing blacks in the cities. • Many cities were unprepared for the rapid growth of population brought on by The Great Migration… • 1916-1930: movement of the black population from rural south to urban north Routes of The Great Migration

  10. Blacks and the right to vote • 1908: Georgia passed the Grandfather Clause: • Stated that only those men whose fathers or grandfathers had been eligible to vote in 1867 could vote now. • Kept most Georgia blacks from voting • Other qualifications needed to vote: • Own property • Pay a poll tax (a tax to vote) • Pass a literacy (reading) test

  11. Early Civil Rights Leaders

  12. Early Civil Rights Leaders II

  13. Trial of Leo M. Frank • Supt. Of National Pencil Company factory • Accused of killing 14yr. Old Mary Phagan • Jewish • Convicted on testimony of black janitor • Pardoned by governor but lynched in Marietta by mob led by KKK. • KKKs rebirth in Stone Mtn. • Active in all southern states, Midwest, and Cal. • 1915 Leo M. Frank and Mary Phagan

  14. Early Civil Right Leaders iii

  15. Early Civil Rights Leaders IV

  16. Civil Rights 2nd Generation • Brown v. Board of Education • 1954 Supreme Court ruling that wiped out the legal basis for racial segregation in public education. • Georgia Governors (Talmadge and Griffin) along with the Georgia General Assembly resisted all efforts to desegregate schools. • Went as far as threatening to abolish the public school system. • 1961-Atlanta began to integrate public schools

  17. 2nd Generation civil rights • Rosa Parks: • Montgomery, Alabama woman arrested for not giving up her bus seat to a white passenger. • Following her arrest, the black community, organized by Martin Luther King, boycotted the city bus system. • Ralph McGill: • White newspaper editor (Atlanta Constitution) who wrote about the barriers facing the black southerner…trying to educate other areas of the country as to the goings on in the south.

  18. 2nd Generation Leaders • Martin Luther King, Jr.: • Created civil rights organization, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) headquartered in Atlanta • Ralph Abernathy: • Pastor; advisor and aide to MLK…treasurer of SCLC • Andrew Young: • minister; director of voter registration for SCLC and top aide to MLK • Black democrat congressman from Georgia • Lonnie King and Julian Bond: • Formed Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) headquartered in Atlanta

  19. The Albany Movement • Organization formed by local black civil rights groups in Albany, Georgia… • Goal was to end segregation in the city through negotiation • Many were jailed along with MLK and Abernathy “Letter from Birmingham Jail” • MLK’s penned a letter describing his actions and telling people to believe in the Civil Rights cause while being held in solitary confinement.

  20. March on Washington • Civil Rights leaders from across America organized a march on Washington DC in August 1963 to demonstrate the national support for Civil Rights. • Called on our nations leaders to pass far-reaching civil rights legislation • MLK’s “I have a dream…” speech given here!! • Civil Rights Act of 1964: • Prohibits racial discrimination in employment and labor unions and in public facilities…federal gov’t could withhold funds from school districts refusing to integrate. • Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States: • Supreme Court ruled that discrimination by race in privately owned public accommodations could no longer segregate

  21. 2nd Generation Continued • Voting Rights Act of 1965: • Federal government now had jurisdiction of registering voters and could send in examiners and officials to assure discrimination was not taking place! • Maynard Jackson: • First African American to head a major southern city as mayor elected Mayor of Atlanta in 1973 • Strong supporter of expansion and modernization of Atlanta’s airport (Hartsfield-JACKSON Airport)

  22. Credits • Page 3: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/may18.html • Page 4: http://www.nps.gov/archive/bowa/btwbio.html • Page 5: http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96feb/dubois.html • Page 6: http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-3033 • Page 7: http://www.naacp.org/about/ • Page 8: http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/entry-detail.aspx?entryID=4# • Page 9: http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/545.html • Page 11: http://library.duke.edu/specialcollections/franklin/bio.html • Page 11: http://www.aaregistry.com/african_american_history/815/Lucy_Laney_was_a_pure_educator__ • Page 11: http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2508 • Page 12: http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1603 • Page 12: http://www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/es/pa/free_1 • Page 13: http://www.atlantanation.com/leofrank.html • Page 14: http://www.history.army.mil/topics/afam/flipper.htm • Page 14: http://www.atlantaga.gov/government/urbandesign_fircongre.aspx • Page 14: http://shamrocks147.blogspot.com/2006/01/reverend-adam-daniel-williams.html • Page 15: http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-2912 • Page 15: http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-821