Chapter 2 “Cells”Section 1: “Cell Structure Pages 38 – 40 LESSON 1
COMMON CELL TRAITS • A cell is the smallest unit that is capable of performing life functions.
COMPARING CELLS • The size & shape of a cell relates to its function. (job it does)
Prokaryotic Cells(proh KAYR ee yah tihk) • cells without membrane-bound structures • EX: bacteria pond scum
Eukaryotic Cells(yew KAYR ee yah tihk) • cells with membrane-bound structures • EX: animals, plants, fungi and protists
CELL WALL • protects the cell • gives shape • is made of cellulose • A cell wall is found in plants, algae, fungi, & most bacteria.
CELL MEMBRANE • Outer covering, protective layer around ALL cells • For cells with cell walls,the cell membrane is inside the cell wall • Allows food, oxygen, & water into the cell & waste products out of the cell.
CYTOPLASM • gelatin-like inside cell membrane • constantly flows • aka protoplasm
CYTOSKELETON • scaffolding-like structure in cytoplasm • helps the cell maintain or change its shape • made of protein
NUCLEUS • Directs all cell activities • Contains instructions for everything the cell does • These instructions are found on a hereditary material called DNA • Usually the largest organelle
NUCLEAR MEMBRANE • separates nucleus from cytoplasm • controls movement of materials in & out of nucleus
NUCLEOLUS • Aka “little nucleus” • Found in the nucleus
CHROMATIN • contains genetic code that controls cell • made of DNA & proteins