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Cells

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  1. Cells Cell Structure and Function Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Cell Growth and Division

  2. Cell Structure and Function(Chapter 7)

  3. Life is Cellular • How did the Cell Theory develop? • Cell Theory Guided Reading activity • Know the contributions of the following scientists: • Robert Hooke (1665) • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1674) • Matthias Schleiden (1838) • Theodor Schwann (1839) • Rudolph Virchow (1855) • Janet Plowe (1931) • Lynn Margulis (1970)

  4. Prokaryotes = Eukaryotes= Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Use my website to determine the major differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

  5. Cell Structures • Use the webquest on animal and plant cell organelles and their functions as notes for this section. • Go to my website, click on links, then click on “cells alive!” • Or go to http://www.cellsalive.com for more information!

  6. The Compound Microscope • Review the microscope lab activity as notes for this section! • Know the parts of the microscope and be able to accurately label a microscope diagram! • Know how to make a wet mount slide!

  7. Cellular Diversity • Protists: • Webquest on “What are Protists?” • Protista lab activity • Animal and Plant Cells: • Observing Animal and Plant Cells lab activity

  8. Protist Lab Video Clips • Paramecium: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9ymaSzcsdY&NR=1&feature=fvwp • Euglena: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7DALQ-XLJ4Q&feature=related • Amoeba: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I3Jo7moaLdI&feature=related

  9. Levels of Organization in Multicellular Organisms • Use the Levels of Organization webquest as notes for this section.

  10. Structure and Function 20 minute research activity: Choose a cell type and research how it’s structure helps it function.

  11. Cells performing the same function often are similar in shape • Question: “How does the cell shape affect it’s function/allow it to function?” • Choose from one of these cell types: • Neuron • Red Blood Cell • Cheek Epithelial Cell • Product Ideas: • PowerPoint, Poster, graphic organizer, song, interpretive dance, model, acrostic poem, concept map

  12. Neuron

  13. Cheek Epithelial Cell

  14. Red Blood Cell

  15. Neuron Notes…

  16. Cheek Epithelial Cell Notes…

  17. Red Blood Cell Notes…

  18. Homeostasis in the Human Body • Use the Homeostasis in the Human Body Webquest as notes for this section.

  19. The Cell Membrane Structure and Function “Fluid Mosaic Model”

  20. The Cell Membrane • Regulates what enters and leaves • Provides protection and support • Made up of: • Phospholipids (“lipid bilayer”) • Integral and Peripheral Proteins • Carbohydrate chains (glycoproteins) • Cholesterol

  21. Cell membrane structure

  22. Where are they found? • Found in: • Nucleus • Cell membrane • Golgi apparatus • endoplasmic reticulum • lysosomes • mitochondria • (basically any membrane bound organelle!)

  23. Structure • Lipid bilayer is made of the following: • 2 types of proteins: • Integral proteins • Peripheral proteins • 3 types of lipids: • Membrane Phospholipids • Membrane glycolipids • Cholesterol

  24. Integral proteins • Transmembrane proteins (or integral proteins) • Amphipathic = hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions

  25. Peripheral proteins • Peripheral proteins • linked at the cytoplasmic surface (by attachment to a fatty acid chain) • linked at the external cell surface (attached by an oligosaccharide) • may be bound to other membrane proteins

  26. Membrane Phospholipids • These have a polar head group and two hydrocarbon tails • It is connected by glycerol to two fatty acid tails • One of the tails is a straight chain fatty acid (saturated). The other has a kink in the tail (unsaturated).

  27. Membrane glycolipids • Glycolipids are also a constituent of membranes. • These components of the membrane may be protective, insulators, and sites of receptor binding.

  28. Cholesterol • The amount of cholesterol may vary with the type of membrane. • Plasma membranes have nearly one cholesterol per phospholipid molecule. • Other membranes (like those around bacteria) have no cholesterol

  29. Cholesterol (continued) • Function: • This makes the lipid bilayer less deformable • Without cholesterol (such as in a bacterium) a cell would need a cell wall. • Also keeps the cell membrane from becoming too stiff.

  30. Fluid Mosaic Model • Based on what you know about the structure and function of the cell membrane what does the fluid mosaic model mean?

  31. Diffusion, Osmosis, and Active Transport Molecular Workbench Activity • Complete this online and use your analysis packets as additional notes. • We will be completing this in class!

  32. Movement Through the Membrane • Materials can move through the membrane by: • Diffusion • Osmosis • Facilitated Diffusion • Active Transport • Protein Pumps • Endocytosis • Exocytosis NO ENERGY (ATP) REQUIRED [high]  [low] ENERGY (ATP) REQUIRED [low]  [high]

  33. Diffusion • Requires no energy (ATP) • Moves from an area of High concentration  low concentration until dynamic equilibrium is reached. • Dynamic equilibrium activity • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/transport/diffusion.swf

  34. Osmosis • A type of diffusion (no energy needed) • Allows water molecules to pass easily through the selectively permeable membrane. • Solution = solute + solvent • Solute = sugar (or another dissolved substance)…CANNOT go through the membrane • Solvent = water…CAN go through the membrane

  35. Osmosis • ONLY water moves • The solute stays put on one side or the other • Water moves back and forth according to the concentration of water on each side of the membrane • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/transport/osmosis.swf

  36. Osmotic Pressure • Isotonic solutions • The 2 solutions have equal concentrations of solute and solvent. • Hypotonic solutions • One solution has less solute and more water compared to the other solution. • Hypertonic solutions • One solution has more solute and less water compared to the other solution.

  37. What would happen? • What would happen if… • You placed a selectively permeable membrane “bag” with a hypotonic solution into a beaker with a hypertonic solution? • Which way would the water flow? • What would happen to the bag? • What would happen to the beaker? • How do you know? • How could you test this?

  38. Facilitated Diffusion • Diffusion with the help of transport proteins • No energy required • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/transport/channel.swf

  39. Active Transport • Celluses energy • Actively moves molecules to where they are needed • Movement from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration • 3 MAIN TYPES: • Protein pumps • Endocytosis (BULK TRANSPORT) • Exocytosis (BULK TRANSPORT)

  40. Types of Active Transport 1. Protein Pumps -transport proteins that require energy to do work • Example: Sodium / Potassium Pumps are important in nerve responses. • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/transport/secondary%20active%20transport.swf • Protein changes shape to move molecules: this requires energy!

  41. Types of Active Transport 2. Endocytosis: taking bulky material into a cell • Uses energy • Cellmembrane in-folds around food particle • “cell eating” • Forms food vacuole & digests food • This is how white blood cells eat bacteria!

  42. Types of Active Transport 3. Exocytosis: Forces material out of cell in bulk • membrane surrounding the material fuses with cellmembrane • Cell changes shape – requires energy • EX: Hormones or wastes released from cell • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/cellstructures/phagocitosis.swf

  43. Photosynthesis

  44. Energy and Life • Energy = ability to do work • Source of energy on Earth = sun • Autotrophs  use light energy from the sun (or other sources) to make food. • Heterotrophs obtain energy from foods consumed. • Energy comes in many forms • Light, heat, and electricity

  45. ATP  “like a fully charged battery” • One of the principle chemical compounds that is used to store energy • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

  46. ADP  “like a ½ charged battery” • When energy is released from ATP  converts to ADP and a phosphate group

  47. Using Biochemical Energy • Cells use this energy for: • Mechanical work, chemical work, transport work • Basically, all cellular processes • ATP in cells = good for only a few seconds of activity (not efficient storage) • 1 molecule of glucose stores more than 90x’s the chemical energy of ATP • Cells can generate ATP as needed from the glucose in carbohydrates consumed during feeding