Cells Cell Structure and Function Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Cell Growth and Division
Life is Cellular • How did the Cell Theory develop? • Cell Theory Guided Reading activity • Know the contributions of the following scientists: • Robert Hooke (1665) • Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1674) • Matthias Schleiden (1838) • Theodor Schwann (1839) • Rudolph Virchow (1855) • Janet Plowe (1931) • Lynn Margulis (1970)
Prokaryotes = Eukaryotes= Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Use my website to determine the major differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes.
Cell Structures • Use the webquest on animal and plant cell organelles and their functions as notes for this section. • Go to my website, click on links, then click on “cells alive!” • Or go to http://www.cellsalive.com for more information!
The Compound Microscope • Review the microscope lab activity as notes for this section! • Know the parts of the microscope and be able to accurately label a microscope diagram! • Know how to make a wet mount slide!
Cellular Diversity • Protists: • Webquest on “What are Protists?” • Protista lab activity • Animal and Plant Cells: • Observing Animal and Plant Cells lab activity
Protist Lab Video Clips • Paramecium: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l9ymaSzcsdY&NR=1&feature=fvwp • Euglena: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7DALQ-XLJ4Q&feature=related • Amoeba: • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I3Jo7moaLdI&feature=related
Levels of Organization in Multicellular Organisms • Use the Levels of Organization webquest as notes for this section.
Structure and Function 20 minute research activity: Choose a cell type and research how it’s structure helps it function.
Cells performing the same function often are similar in shape • Question: “How does the cell shape affect it’s function/allow it to function?” • Choose from one of these cell types: • Neuron • Red Blood Cell • Cheek Epithelial Cell • Product Ideas: • PowerPoint, Poster, graphic organizer, song, interpretive dance, model, acrostic poem, concept map
Homeostasis in the Human Body • Use the Homeostasis in the Human Body Webquest as notes for this section.
The Cell Membrane Structure and Function “Fluid Mosaic Model”
The Cell Membrane • Regulates what enters and leaves • Provides protection and support • Made up of: • Phospholipids (“lipid bilayer”) • Integral and Peripheral Proteins • Carbohydrate chains (glycoproteins) • Cholesterol
Where are they found? • Found in: • Nucleus • Cell membrane • Golgi apparatus • endoplasmic reticulum • lysosomes • mitochondria • (basically any membrane bound organelle!)
Structure • Lipid bilayer is made of the following: • 2 types of proteins: • Integral proteins • Peripheral proteins • 3 types of lipids: • Membrane Phospholipids • Membrane glycolipids • Cholesterol
Integral proteins • Transmembrane proteins (or integral proteins) • Amphipathic = hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
Peripheral proteins • Peripheral proteins • linked at the cytoplasmic surface (by attachment to a fatty acid chain) • linked at the external cell surface (attached by an oligosaccharide) • may be bound to other membrane proteins
Membrane Phospholipids • These have a polar head group and two hydrocarbon tails • It is connected by glycerol to two fatty acid tails • One of the tails is a straight chain fatty acid (saturated). The other has a kink in the tail (unsaturated).
Membrane glycolipids • Glycolipids are also a constituent of membranes. • These components of the membrane may be protective, insulators, and sites of receptor binding.
Cholesterol • The amount of cholesterol may vary with the type of membrane. • Plasma membranes have nearly one cholesterol per phospholipid molecule. • Other membranes (like those around bacteria) have no cholesterol
Cholesterol (continued) • Function: • This makes the lipid bilayer less deformable • Without cholesterol (such as in a bacterium) a cell would need a cell wall. • Also keeps the cell membrane from becoming too stiff.
Fluid Mosaic Model • Based on what you know about the structure and function of the cell membrane what does the fluid mosaic model mean?
Diffusion, Osmosis, and Active Transport Molecular Workbench Activity • Complete this online and use your analysis packets as additional notes. • We will be completing this in class!
Movement Through the Membrane • Materials can move through the membrane by: • Diffusion • Osmosis • Facilitated Diffusion • Active Transport • Protein Pumps • Endocytosis • Exocytosis NO ENERGY (ATP) REQUIRED [high] [low] ENERGY (ATP) REQUIRED [low] [high]
Diffusion • Requires no energy (ATP) • Moves from an area of High concentration low concentration until dynamic equilibrium is reached. • Dynamic equilibrium activity • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/transport/diffusion.swf
Osmosis • A type of diffusion (no energy needed) • Allows water molecules to pass easily through the selectively permeable membrane. • Solution = solute + solvent • Solute = sugar (or another dissolved substance)…CANNOT go through the membrane • Solvent = water…CAN go through the membrane
Osmosis • ONLY water moves • The solute stays put on one side or the other • Water moves back and forth according to the concentration of water on each side of the membrane • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/transport/osmosis.swf
Osmotic Pressure • Isotonic solutions • The 2 solutions have equal concentrations of solute and solvent. • Hypotonic solutions • One solution has less solute and more water compared to the other solution. • Hypertonic solutions • One solution has more solute and less water compared to the other solution.
What would happen? • What would happen if… • You placed a selectively permeable membrane “bag” with a hypotonic solution into a beaker with a hypertonic solution? • Which way would the water flow? • What would happen to the bag? • What would happen to the beaker? • How do you know? • How could you test this?
Facilitated Diffusion • Diffusion with the help of transport proteins • No energy required • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/transport/channel.swf
Active Transport • Celluses energy • Actively moves molecules to where they are needed • Movement from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration • 3 MAIN TYPES: • Protein pumps • Endocytosis (BULK TRANSPORT) • Exocytosis (BULK TRANSPORT)
Types of Active Transport 1. Protein Pumps -transport proteins that require energy to do work • Example: Sodium / Potassium Pumps are important in nerve responses. • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/transport/secondary%20active%20transport.swf • Protein changes shape to move molecules: this requires energy!
Types of Active Transport 2. Endocytosis: taking bulky material into a cell • Uses energy • Cellmembrane in-folds around food particle • “cell eating” • Forms food vacuole & digests food • This is how white blood cells eat bacteria!
Types of Active Transport 3. Exocytosis: Forces material out of cell in bulk • membrane surrounding the material fuses with cellmembrane • Cell changes shape – requires energy • EX: Hormones or wastes released from cell • http://www.stolaf.edu/people/giannini/flashanimat/cellstructures/phagocitosis.swf
Energy and Life • Energy = ability to do work • Source of energy on Earth = sun • Autotrophs use light energy from the sun (or other sources) to make food. • Heterotrophs obtain energy from foods consumed. • Energy comes in many forms • Light, heat, and electricity
ATP “like a fully charged battery” • One of the principle chemical compounds that is used to store energy • Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
ADP “like a ½ charged battery” • When energy is released from ATP converts to ADP and a phosphate group
Using Biochemical Energy • Cells use this energy for: • Mechanical work, chemical work, transport work • Basically, all cellular processes • ATP in cells = good for only a few seconds of activity (not efficient storage) • 1 molecule of glucose stores more than 90x’s the chemical energy of ATP • Cells can generate ATP as needed from the glucose in carbohydrates consumed during feeding