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Calspan In-Flight Simulation Projects SAE Presentation Oct 2008 Learjet – Automated Aerial Refueling Learjet – Sense &a PowerPoint Presentation
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Flight Research. Calspan In-Flight Simulation Projects SAE Presentation Oct 2008 Learjet – Automated Aerial Refueling Learjet – Sense & Avoid Flight Test. AAR Sponsored by AFRL Other Major Participating Organizations: NAVAIR, Boeing, Northrop Grumman, Rockwell Collins, Titan

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Flight Research

Calspan In-Flight Simulation ProjectsSAE PresentationOct 2008Learjet – Automated Aerial Refueling Learjet – Sense & Avoid Flight Test

learjet automated aerial refueling aar
AAR Sponsored by AFRL

Other Major Participating Organizations:

NAVAIR, Boeing, Northrop Grumman, Rockwell Collins, Titan

Utilizing Learjet as “surrogate” UAV to host sensors & control systems

Objectives:

Clear Learjet to operate in refueling position around KC-135

No actual hook-up

Gather PGPS data

Evaluate acceptability of sensors

PGPS & Datalink (TTNT)

Installed & Checkout Servo-Throttle in LJ

Evaluate control laws for automated refueling - Station Keeping

Hold relative Tanker-to-LJ positions at engage

Straight & Level

30º Banked Turns & Racetracks

Evaluate Autonomous trajectory control

Between Observation, Pre-Contact, Contact, Breakaway

Done

2004

Done

2005

Done

2007

In 2009

Learjet Automated Aerial Refueling (AAR)

Done

2006

Evaluate Redundancies & Contingencies

learjet aar
Learjet AAR
  • Initial Test Flight Tests:
    • Sep 2004
    • At Niagara Falls with 107th ANG KC-135
    • Cleared LJ to operate with KC-135
    • Gathered data for PGPS & EO sensors
    • 8 flights, 12 Flt-Hrs
  • Second Flight Test:
    • Sep 2005
    • At NAWCWD China Lake, CA
    • Datalink tests
    • Tactical Targeting Network Technology (TTNT)
    • Checked out Servo -Throttle
    • 7 Flights, 10 Flt-Hrs
learjet aar1
Learjet AAR
  • Third Flight Test:
    • Jul/Aug 2006
    • At Niagara Falls with 107th ANG KC-135
      • Very efficient operations
      • Dedicated aircraft / crews / facilities
    • AUTONOMOUS Station-Keeping
    • Safety Pilot flew to various refueling positions, then engaged simulation
    • AAR GPS-based Control Laws in Boeing Flight Control Computer - FCC
    • FCC interfaced with Learjet VSS through sensors & commands to control elevator, aileron, rudder, throttle.
      • Held relative Tanker-to-LJ engaged positions - VERY precise
      • Straight & Level, 30º Banked Turns, & Racetrack patterns
      • Light to Moderate Turbulence
    • Gathered IR Camera data for “Hybrid” system
    • Flew 20 Flights, 30 Flt-Hrs
learjet aar2
Learjet AAR
  • Fourth Flight Test:
    • Jul/Sep 2007
    • At Niagara Falls with 107th ANG KC-135
    • AUTONOMOUS Transitions and Station-Keeping
    • Safety Pilot flew to Transition Point (1500 ft in trail), then engaged simulation for remainder of flight.
    • AAR Control Laws flew transitions between positions:
      • Initiated by test engineer.
      • Autonomous Transitions during:
        • Straight & Level, 30º Banked Turns, & Racetrack patterns
      • Station Keeping at all positions
    • Flew 19 Flights, 32 Flt-Hrs:
      • On one flight: stayed engaged 75 minutes, >20 minutes at Contact
learjet aar3
Learjet AAR
  • Fifth Flight Test:
    • July 2009
    • At Forbes Field, KS with 190th Kansas ANG KC-135
    • Test of AAR RELNAV system redundancy and contingencies
    • Multiple TTNT datalinks in Tanker.
    • Multiple INS/GPS systems in Learjet Surrogate Receiver.
    • Safety Pilots will manually fly all refueling positions.
    • Fly ~ 10 Flights, 20 Flt-Hrs
learjet aar4
Learjet AAR

LJ in Contact Position

in Turn

learjet aar5
Learjet AAR

LJ Test Engineer Control/Display

LJ Pilots’ View

learjet sense avoid flight test

NON-COOPERATIVE

  • Detect with Cameras
  • COOPERATIVE
    • TCAS or Mode-C
    • Detectable
    • Coordinated Collision Avoidance
Learjet Sense & Avoid Flight Test
  • UAV Sense & Avoid in National Air Space.
  • Autonomously Detect and Avoid intruder aircraft

in terminal environment.

  • Cooperative & Non-Cooperative Intruders
  • Equivalent Level-of-Safety as piloted operations.
  • Equivalent Level-of-Behavior as piloted operations.
learjet sense avoid flight test1
Learjet Sense & Avoid Flight Test
  • AFRL – Sponsor
  • Northrop Grumman (NGC) – Prime contractor
  • Calspan – Installations and Flight Test in Learjet
    • Simulate UAV (Global Hawk-like) dynamics
    • Backup Intruder (LJ3 & LJ4)
  • Defense Research Associates (DRA) – Camera system, detector, tracker
  • Bihrle – Provides avoidance software
  • FAA – Provides “Intruders” (Convair-580 & King Air) & ADS-B
  • ICx – Provides radar (AI-130 used in helos for tower & cable detection)
  • Cooperative Intruder (TCAS-II and ADS-B Equipped)
    • Utilizes Resolution Advisory (RA) commands
  • Non-Cooperative Intruder (No transponders, Uses only cameras)
    • EO 3-Camera System
    • Radar
  • Intrusion Scenarios:
    • One & Two Intruder scenarios: Level head-on, cross-track, climb/descend head-on, overtake, cross-track.
learjet sense avoid flight test2
Learjet Sense & Avoid Flight Test
  • Phase I
    • Oct ‘07 – Jan ‘07, 22 Flights – 39 Hours
    • Used EO cameras and IR cameras
  • Phase II
    • Apr/May ‘08, Nov ‘08, Apr ‘09
    • Using Radar data fused with EO Camera data.
    • Radar provides better range data than cameras.
    • Improved detection and false alarm rejection.
  • Phase III
    • Later in 2009
    • Will use a new prototype Global Hawk SAA radar to replace ICx AI-130.
learjet sense avoid flight test3
Learjet Sense & Avoid Flight Test

Typical Multiple Intrusion Scenarios

King Air is 0.2 nm beyond Learjet when Learjet crosses CPA

0.2 nm

0.2 nm

0.5 nm

0.5 nm

0.5 nm

Learjet: 150 KIAS

King Air: 150 KIAS

Convair: 150 KIAS

learjet sense avoid flight test4
Learjet Sense & Avoid Flight Test

Modified LJ Radome with EO 3-Camera

& ICx Radar Installation