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  1. Welcome To National Headquarters, Civil Air Patrol Flight Line Course Rev: 8/05/03 Flight Line Course 1

  2. Class Information • Bathrooms • Refreshments • Fire Exits (where to assemble) • Shelters • Telephones • Parking • Smoking area • Phone Number Flight Line Course 2

  3. Class Introductions • Lt. Col Mike DuBois • Lt. Col Rich Simerson • Students Flight Line Course 3

  4. Course Contents • 1.0 Introduction • 2.0 Acknowledgments • Flight Line Operations • Flight Line Procedures for Vehicles • Flight Line Procedures for Aircraft • Standard Marshalling Signals • Helicopters • Risk Management • Appendix • Attachments Flight Line Course 4

  5. 1.0 Introduction Flight Line Course 5

  6. 1.1 General • CAP designed this course to assist members in planning and working on a flight line. Flight Line Course 6

  7. 1.2 Purpose • This flight Line Reference Text should be used as a reference in flight line training and as a guide in the preparation and execution of flight line operations. Flight Line Course 7

  8. 1.3 Safety • The importance of safety is emphasized throughout the text and course Flight Line Course 8

  9. 2.0 Acknowledgements Flight Line Course 9

  10. 2.1 History • Many dedicated persons have contributed to the development of the text, slides, and attachments that make up the CAP flight Line Text and Course Flight Line Course 10

  11. 2.2 Text • The text was modified and expanded to serve as the classroom material for the national Emergency Curriculum Project Flight Line Course. • Lt. Col Mike DuBois developed this text and the associated slides; he now maintains and updates the materials. Lt. Col Rich Simerson provided invaluable input and was indispensable in shaping the text and course. Flight Line Course 11

  12. 2.3 Document • This is a “living” document. It is being tested and improved through its use in the NESA Mission Aircrew School and it is being field-tested by units throughout the country as part of the National Emergency Services Curriculum Project. Flight Line Course 12

  13. 2.4 Who to Contact • Please direct comments (via e-mail) to the text administrator • Lt. Col Mike DuBois at mhdubois@cox.net Flight Line Course 13

  14. 3.0 Flight Line Operations Flight Line Course 14

  15. 3.1 Glossary of Words and Abbreviations • A/A – Air-to-Air. • A/G – Air-to-Ground. • ANSI – American National Standards Institute • Combustible Liquid – A liquid having a flashpoint at or above 100 degrees F (37.8 degrees C). • EOR – End of Runway. • ECP – Entry Control Points. • Flammable Liquid - A liquid with a flash point less than 100 degrees F (37.8 degrees C) • Flight Line – A flight line is any area or facility including aprons, hardstands, and ramps on or in which aircraft may be parked, stored, serviced or maintained. Flight Line Course 15

  16. 3.1 Glossary of Words and Abbreviations (Cont.) • Flight Line Supervisor – Officer responsible for all operations on the flight line area. • FOD – Foreign Object Damage. • Statically Grounded – Connected to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of earth. • Grounding – The process of connecting one or more metallic objects and ground conductors to grounded electrodes. • HAP – High Accident Potential • LZ – Landing Zone • Marshaller – A person who is responsible for marshalling and parking of aircraft. Flight Line Course 16

  17. 3.1 Glossary of Words and Abbreviations (Cont.) • IC (Incident Commander) – One who is in charge of the mission and mission base. • NFPA – National Fire Protection Association • OSHA – Occupational Safety and health Association. • PMV – Private Motor Vehicle. Flight Line Course 17

  18. 3.2 Flight Line Operation Center • Responsibility of the Flight Line Supervisor. • Establish inside if possible. • Convenient for both the staff and flight crews. • Appoint a member of flight line team as Flight Line Administration Officer to expedite the flow of information and flight crews to and from the flight line. Flight Line Course 18

  19. 3.2.2 Flight Line Parking Board • The flight line operations center should have a aircraft parking board that shows the parking area layout with a space to show ‘N’ numbers and call signs of the aircraft parked in each space. This will give flight line operations a place to display what is on the flight line and where. Flight Line Course 19

  20. 3.2.3 aircraft Key Peg Board • The flight line operations center should have a aircraft key peg board that is a smaller copy of the aircraft parking board that can be used to keep and display aircraft keys. This will give the flight line operations a place to display the keys it has to which aircraft. • All keys received from aircrews without “N” number tags shall be immediately tagged with the “N” number. Flight Line Course 20

  21. 3.2.4 Aircraft Keys • The flight line operation center is the best place to keep aircraft keys because they are in charge of all mission aircraft. • If you have only one crew per aircraft there is no advantage to have each aircrew turn in their keys after each flight. From a safety stand point it is better to have each crew flying their assigned aircraft. • If you have more than one aircrew per aircraft then it will become necessary for each aircrew to turn in their keys after each flight. Flight Line Course 21

  22. 3.2.5 Reporting • All aircrews should report to the Flight Line Operations Center after every sortie, and before leaving on a new sortie. The following outlines the procedures.  • Under no circumstances should a set of aircraft keys be given to an aircrew without a completed CAPF 104 signed by the pilot, briefing officer and Air Operations Branch Director. • After receiving the CAPF 104, the Flight Line Administration Officer will give the keys to the aircrew for their assigned aircraft and notify the flight line marshaller (optional) that designated aircraft has been released to the appropriate aircrew. • Upon returning from sorties, each aircrew should return their keys to the Flight Line Administration Officer. Flight Line Course 22

  23. 3.3 Communications • The flight line operations center and flight line personnel should be equipped with three radios. The Flight Line Supervisor will brief all personnel on the use and operation of the radios. • Two-way radio (typically a 26.620 MHz, 49 MHz, or FRS channels) to be used for communications between the operations center and the flight line personnel. • CAP FM radio used for communications between the operations center and other staff members. If available, phones may also be used. • VHF air radio used for communications between the operations center and the FBO. If available, phones may also be used. Flight Line Course 23

  24. 3.4 Clothing and Personal Equipment • The standard Air Force or CAP BDU uniform and reflective vest should be worn. During cold weather all personnel should have adequate clothing (jackets, gloves, etc.); during warmer temperatures, personnel may remove their BDU tops. Flight Line Course 24

  25. 3.4 Jewelry • Many severe lacerations and finger amputations have resulted from personnel wearing rings while working around aircraft and ground handling equipment. • Personnel will not wear rings, dog tags, necklaces, bracelets, watches, or any other loose items, which could be snagged or caught, while performing on the flight line. Flight Line Course 25

  26. 3.5 Hats • Hats should be worn to provide protection from the sun, but the following rules should be followed: • - The hat must have a retaining device to help secure the hat. If your hat does not have one, it can be fabricated (e.g., two small alligator clips on a short piece of cord; one clip is attached to the hat in the back and the other is attached to the collar). • - Boonie hats offer the most solar protection and have a sewn in retention strap. If boonie hats are used the strap must be kept tight under the chin to be effective. • - Should a hat be blown from your head, let it go. Under NO circumstance should a Marshaller chase a hat or run on the flight line. Flight Line Course 26

  27. 3.6 Hearing Protection • Hearing protection must be worn when working around turbine powered aircraft (turbo or fan-jet or turboprop) and Helicopters. • This can be accomplished with suitable earplugs or earmuffs. The use of foam type earplugs is recommended due to their low cost. Flight Line Course 27

  28. 3.7 Eye Protection • Eye protection may be worn when operating on the flight line, if there is a danger from flying debris (use safety glasses instead of goggles, as goggles tend to fog up). • This protection should be suitable safety glasses with safety side shields. You can get safety glasses that are also sunglasses for sunny days. • Goggles are preferred during helicopter operations. Flight Line Course 28

  29. 3.8 Sun Protection • All flight line personnel should use sunscreen with an SPF at least 15. Sunscreen should be applied to all exposed skin surfaces at beginning of the day and periodically after that (remember the ears!). The Flight Line Supervisor or Mission Safety Officer will ensure that cadet personnel have and use sun protection as needed. Chap Stick (lip balm) containing sun protection should also be available. Flight Line Course 29

  30. 3.9 Wands • Aircraft marshallers shall use have high-visibility wands available during the day and lighted wands at night. High-visibility wands may be locally fabricated (see 9.1). Flight Line Course 30

  31. 3.10 Safety • The primary concern during any flight line operation is SAFETY. • All personnel are authorized to stop any activity on a flight line if any actual or perceived unsafe activity is occurring. • Aircraft marshallers should contact the Flight Line Supervisor, Mission Safety Officer or IC if there is any concern over safety. Flight Line Course 31


  33. 3.10.2 Hazards • During flight line operations various hazards are encountered. • They include: • Explosive hazards such as gasoline, oil and cleaning solvents. • The Flight Line Supervisor will ensure all personnel are aware of potentially flammable fuel vapor areas. Fuel vapors are heavier than air and will settle to ground level and enter below ground areas. Some examples of hazardous fuel vapor areas are fuel pits below ground level, and areas within 10 feet of aircraft fuel vent systems and fuel spills. Flight Line Course 33

  34. 3.10.2 Hazards (Cont.) • Tripping hazards such as cables, tie-down ropes or chains, fuel hoses and ladders. • Slipping hazards such as oil, hydraulic fluid, grease spills, and weather conditions. • Lightning and high static electricity conditions. • Cell phones and pagers are a distraction and can be an ignition source. Do not wear either while working on the flight line or refueling. • Antennas, static wicks, Pitot tubes, and other projections. • Medical conditions as dehydration and fatigue should be treated as hazards too. Both can result in unsafe operations and poor performance. Flight Line Course 34

  35. 3.10.3 Safety Procedures • While on the flight line there are a number of other safety procedures you must observe. After entering the designated flight line area: • No saluting. • NO SMOKING. • No running. • No horse play. • No walking backwards. • Personnel should remain at least 15 feet from propellers. It is very difficult to see a propeller when it is rotating at high speed, so personnel must be especially careful when approaching a rotating propeller from the front. The aircraft could suddenly move forward without warning. Flight Line Course 35

  36. 3.10.4 Dehydration • It is very easy to become dehydrated while working on the flight line. • All personnel should consume sufficient liquids to maintain their health. • Flight Line Supervisors shall insure sufficient water is available so all personnel can drink at least every 15 minutes. • Limit the consumption of drinks containing carbonation (e.g., sports drinks, coffee or soda); they can cause you to become dehydrated. Flight Line Course 36

  37. 3.10.5 Fatigue • Fatigue is a major contributor to many safety incidents and accidents. • Incident Commanders will ensure that personnel performing operational mission activities, particularly flight operations, have had sufficient rest to enable them to safely complete the proposed assignment. • The Flight Line Supervisor will brief you on how to request time for a rest room break and how meals will be handled. • The Flight Line Supervisor and /or marshallers are authorized to remove any personnel from the flight line area if they seem fatigued. Flight Line Course 37

  38. 3.10.5 Fatigue (Cont.) • CAP flight line personnel will make a conscientious effort to avoid or reduce fatigue by: • Periodic rest breaks. • Periodic light refreshments (e.g., moderate amounts of hot foods, soup, fruit juice). • Avoid excessive smoking. • Sufficient sleep between operations periods (i.e., at least eight hours). • Refraining from alcohol within 24 hours of reporting for the mission. • Rest when they have the opportunity. Typically search missions (especially training) launch aircraft in surges. Between surges, take advantage of opportunities to rest in comfortable. Flight Line Course 38

  39. 3.10.6 Foreign Object Damage (FOD) • Foreign Object Damage (FOD) is a threat to engines and, as such, is a big concern for flight line and aircrew personnel. • It can also be a threat to other portions of an aircraft as well as do serious injury to people. • Aircraft propellers and tires, are extremely vulnerable to FOD. • Foreign objects can be rocks, dirt, hats, paper, trash, bolts, screws, safety wire, tools, rags and pens. • If any FOD material is seen, it should be picked up and placed in a suitable trash receptacle. • To prevent any object from doing damage to an aircraft or person, the flight line should set aside a few minutes each day for an inspection and physical pickup of foreign objects. This is known as “FOD WALK”. Flight Line Course 39

  40. 3.10.7 Housekeeping • An important practice in any safety program is good housekeeping. Housekeeping in hangers, vehicles and other aircraft is essential to personnel and aircraft. • - Keep work areas clean and orderly. • - Clean up any spills or messes immediately. • - Pick up and account for any tools and equipment. • - Properly dispose of any waste material. Flight Line Course 40

  41. 3.11 Fire • Warning: Under no circumstances should a cadet or senior member approach an aircraft on fire when the propeller is turning. Remain at least 15 feet from it. • Never fight a fire in a burning aircraft unless you have been specifically trained in this fire-fighting technique! Flight Line Course 41

  42. 3.11.2 Aircraft Engine Fire During Starting • If an aircraft engine fire occurs during start up, the following procedure should be followed: • - Immediately call the fire department. • - Allow the aircrew to follow their “fire during engine start” procedures (they will increase engine rpm). • - Once the fire department arrives, get out of their way and let them do their job. • - Never approach an aircraft while its propeller is turning (even if it is on fire). • - Remain at least 15 feet from the propeller. • - If not assisting, remain 50 feet from the aircraft or as directed by the Flight Line Supervisor. • - If the aircrew can not put out the fire, they will follow their aircraft evacuation procedure. • - Be available to help the aircrew once they clear the aircraft. • - Normally, the only way to get the fire extinguishing agent onto an engine (with the cowling in place) is through the engine intake (do not attempt while prop is turning). Flight Line Course 42

  43. 3.11.3 Aircraft Cockpit Fire • If an aircraft fire occurs in the cockpit before or after starting, the following procedure should be followed:- Immediately call the fire department. • - Allow the aircrew to follow their cockpit fire procedures. • - Once the fire department arrives, get out of their way and let them do their job. • - Never approach an aircraft while its propeller is turning. • - Remain at least 15 feet from the propeller. • - If not assisting, remain 50 ft from the aircraft or as directed by the Flight Line Supervisor. • - If the aircrew can not put out the fire, they will follow their aircraft evacuation procedure. • - Be available to help the aircrew once they clear the aircraft. Flight Line Course 43

  44. 3.11.4 Fire Extinguishers • All CAP aircraft carry a small fire extinguisher in the aircraft. Due to its small size, it is only useful in putting out small (primarily electrical) fires. • A large, portable fire extinguisher should be positioned near the flight line; preferably out of the way behind the line out of the way, but easy to get to in an emergency. • The type and quantity of extinguishing agent must be suitable for the kinds of fires likely to occur. • Only personnel who have been trained in the use of fire extinguishers should use them to fight a fire. Portable fire extinguisher training should be arranged with your local fire department with emphasis on the type of extinguisher to be used on different classes of fires. Training should also include the use of portable fire extinguishers. Flight Line Course 44

  45. 3.11.5 Fire Training • All CAP flight line personnel must attend a aircraft fire training program, and have our fire training requirement form completed for their files (see attachment 1). Flight Line Course 45

  46. 3.11.5 Fire Training (Cont.) • Training should include, but not be limited to the following with hands on experience in the use of fire extinguisher and putting out a fire. • The Fire Triangle. • Properties of Fire. • The Fire Tetrahedron. • Extinguishing Principles. • Classification of Fires. • Extinguishing Agents. • Fire Fighting Procedures. • General Safety. • Personal use of a Fire Extinguisher. Flight Line Course 46

  47. 3.11.5 Fire Training (Cont.) • Attachment 1, Fire Training Requirements, can be completed on a mission or in a class. A copy of this form should remain in the members personnel file as proof of training. Flight Line Course 47

  48. 3.12 Fire Department • If you don’t have a fire department on the airport, try to arrange for the local fire department to make a fire truck available during your flying hours. • Or make sure you know the local procedures for getting them out to the airport. Flight Line Course 48

  49. 3.13 Ambulance • If you don’t have a ambulance & EMT services on the airport try to arrange with the local jurisdiction to make one available during your flying hours. • Or make sure you know the local procedures for getting them out to the airport. Flight Line Course 49

  50. 3.14 Staff • The flight line staff is the most important tool we have to ensure the efficient, effective and safe operations of our flight line. We have only two (ICS) qualifications: • - Flight Line Marshaller. • - Flight Line Supervisor. Flight Line Course 50