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St. Augustine

St. Augustine. 4 th Grade Humanities April 2012. St. Augustine. Spanish explorers came to Florida Columbus – 1 st voyage – 1492 Ponce de León – 1513 Narváez – 1528 de Soto – 1539 – 1542 Vocabulary: expedition – a journey made for a special purpose

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St. Augustine

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  1. St. Augustine 4th Grade Humanities April 2012

  2. St. Augustine Spanish explorers came to Florida • Columbus – 1st voyage – 1492 • Ponce de León – 1513 • Narváez – 1528 • de Soto – 1539 – 1542 Vocabulary: expedition – a journey made for a special purpose colony – a settlement of people set up by one country in another land

  3. St. Augustine Why did they come to Florida? • silk • spices • other goods from Asia

  4. St. Augustine Columbus • 1492 • Queen of Spain – 3 ships • Bahamas

  5. St. Augustine Juan Ponce de León • 1513 • led 1st European expedition to what is now Florida • claimed land for Spain • named it La Florida – place of flowers • came back in 1521 to start a colony

  6. St. Augustine Juan Ponce de León • came back in 1521 to start a colony • Calusa attacked the Spaniards • Ponce de León was wounded • colonists turned back

  7. St. Augustine Fountain of Youth • legend or “old story” • said to be found in St. Augustine • “People who drank from the fountain would stay young forever.”

  8. St. Augustine Pánfilo de Narváez • 1527 • arrived in Western Florida • demanded to know where the gold was • Native Americans tricked him & directed them to head north • They sailed across Gulf of Mexico toward Texas • Narváez and others drowned in a storm

  9. St. Augustine Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca • was part of the Narváez expedition • survived the storm • was enslaved by Native Americans in Texas • He & three others escaped • These 4 went on to explore much of the Southwest • wrote fascinating account of his experiences

  10. St. Augustine Hernando de Soto • 1539 • landed in Tampa Bay • brought more than 600 people • brought horses, pigs, weapons and supplies • his group marched north, searching for gold • After several months without success, they left FL & went north (never to return).

  11. St. Augustine Spanish had 2 MAIN GOALS: • find gold & silver • persuade the Natives to follow the Roman Catholic religion • Spanish king had ordered explorers to treat the natives kindly • However, de Soto disregarded the king & mistreated the Natives • Because of de Soto’s, Narváez’s & others’ cruelty, Native Americans often fought the Spaniards

  12. St. Augustine Native American groups that fought back: • Timucua – fought when threatened • Apalachee – powerful warriors who defended their lands • Calusa – attacked Spaniards Indians – spears and arrows Spanish – armor and cannons

  13. St. Augustine Death on both sides caused by: • Explorers: • destroyed whole villages • took food & supplies for their armies • spread diseases (smallpox & measles)

  14. St. Augustine Juan Ponce de León • born in northern Spain • 18 yrs. old – joined 2nd voyage of Columbus • 1508 – explored & conquered Puerto Rico (used to be called the island of San Juan)

  15. St. Augustine Juan Ponce de León • King of Spain called on him to explore “island” north of Cuba • 1513 – founded & claimed La Florida • 1521 - He returned to FL to start a colony, but attempt failed • Seriously wounded in battle against the Calusa (& later died)

  16. St. Augustine Jean Ribault • 1562 – set sail from France to FL • Landed on small island in the St. John’s River • They built a 5-sided marker with a bronze shield

  17. St. Augustine Jean Ribault • 1st received friendly welcome from Timucua and their chief, Saturiba • Timucua offered corn, beans, fish, & cucumbers • French offered fine blue gowns

  18. St. Augustine FRENCH TRY TO COLONIZE René Laudonnière • Sailed with Ribault on 1st expedition • 1564 – 300 French colonists built Fort Caroline (near Jax) • has tall arched entrance • threatened by Spain’s king

  19. St. Augustine SPAIN DRIVES OUT FRANCE Pedro Menéndez de Avilés • Sailed south of Fort Caroline, and then marched his troops north for surprise attack • Laudonniére & Le Moyne escaped • Ribault & his remaining troops were put to death in an inlet later named Matanzas (meaning “death”)

  20. St. Augustine SETTLEMENT OF ST. AUGUSTINE FOUNDED Pedro Menéndez de Avilés • drove French out of Florida in 1565 • Founding Day happened to be feast day of St. Augustine • Became the 1st permanent European settlement of of what today is the United States

  21. St. Augustine SETTLEMENT OF ST. AUGUSTINE FOUNDED Pedro Menéndez de Avilés • became the governor (leader) • at first, had good relations with Timucua • After Spanish treated Timucua cruelly, Timucua attacked the settlement • 1586 – Sir Francis Drake & English sailors set fire to city & destroyed it

  22. St. Augustine SETTLEMENT OF ST. AUGUSTINE SUFFERS --over next 80 yrs… • hurricanes • floods • another fire • 1672 – Spanish built sturdier fort – Castillo de San Marcos

  23. St. Augustine Castillo de San Marcos • took more than 20 yrs. to build • guarded the route of Spanish treasure ships that sailed along the coast

  24. St. Augustine The Missions: a church and settlement where religion is taught • priests were among settlers who came to FL • worked to convert Native Americans to Christianity • first mission was started near St. Augustine

  25. St. Augustine The Missions • priests started more than 100 missions in Florida • Bishop Calderón from Cuba wrote a detailed record (used by archeologists later to study Native American way of life) • Many Timucua & Apalachee accepted Christianity & adopted European ways of life • 1706 – FL mission system ends (most were destroyed during conflicts with the English)

  26. St. Augustine Effects of Spanish Rule • many places have Spanish names • some cities have their roots in Spanish colonies • some missions & forts have been restored

  27. St. Augustine Effects of Spanish Rule • Native American population greatly decreased • fighting & disease (no natural defenses in their bodies) were main causes • number of Timucua dropped from 50,000 to 1,000

  28. St. Augustine Pedro Menéndez de Avilés • born in Spain • at 14 yrs. old, joined Spanish navy…soon became an officer • fought pirates in the Mediterranean Sea • commanded a fleet that brought treasure back to Spain from the Americas

  29. St. Augustine Pedro Menéndez de Avilés • 1563 – sent to prison for 2 yrs for not obeying orders at sea • Spain’s king still chose him to start colony in FL • 1565 – founded St. Augustine • built forts along coast • made agreements with Native Americans • brought priests from Spain to start missions • 1574 - died in Spain

  30. St. Augustine Shipwrecks and Salvage • the waters off Florida are “littered” with shipwrecks that occurred over hundreds of years • Attocha – Spanish wreck sank in 1622 – treasure worth an estimated $300 million • Spanish Treasure Fleet – sank in 1715 – still being salvaged

  31. St. Augustine Shipwrecks and Salvage • Florida Keys – ideal territory for wreckers who retrieved and then sold the cargo from ships that crashed on the nearby reef • Blackbeard – cruel pirate who preyed on Spanish ships • Caravels & Galleons – ships that transported treasure back to Spain

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