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Do Now:. Grab Agenda 7:4 (Weebly or Out Box) What is the most interesting fact you can find (Google) about the working/living conditions of the Industrial Revolution? Most interesting one gets extra credit!! Submit your unique answer by going to Classroom #142671

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do now
Do Now:

Grab Agenda 7:4 (Weebly or Out Box)

What is the most interesting fact you can find (Google) about the working/living conditions of the Industrial Revolution? Most interesting one gets extra credit!!

Submit your unique answer by going to Classroom #142671

(Don’t forget to put your name before your answer)

objective victorian england

Objective:Victorian England

WHII.9a and c

TSWDK of the effects of the Industrial Revolution during the 19th century by citing scientific, technological, and industrial developments and explaining how they brought about urbanization and social and environmental changes, and by describing the evolution of the nature of work and the labor force, including its effects on families, the status of women and children, the slave trade, and the labor union movement.

labor unions
Labor Unions
  • Urban Crisis
  • The Rise of the Labor Unions
  • Impacts of the Industrial Revolutions
  • The Middle Class
urban crisis
Urban Crisis


  • Massive growth of European cities beyond a manageable amount.
  • Families living in squalor, danger, and disease

Horrible Histories: Victorian Traffic Report

  • City leaders were unable to keep up with the demand for…
      • Maintaining a clean environment
      • Provide social and sanitation services
      • Enforce the laws
      • Furnish transportation
      • Build housing
urban crisis1
Urban Crisis

Dissatisfaction of Working Class

  • There was no longer a need for the highly skilled; just minimally skilled
  • Bad living conditions
  • Terrible working conditions

First Reaction

  • Angered by the uselessness of their skills to machines, some, in frustration, fought back and destroyed textile machines.
  • Strikes, demonstrations, and incidents such as the Peterloo Massacre (August 1819 in which soldiers closed down a political meeting, killing 11 and injuring hundreds) vividly expressed the workers’ rage.
  • Working and Living Conditions
the rise of the labor unions
The Rise of the Labor Unions

A Movement

  • The labor movement began during the Industrial Revolution, when agricultural jobs declined and employment moved to more industrial areas.
  • The idea met with great resistance. In the early 19th century, groups such as the Tolpuddle Martyrs were punished and transported for forming unions, which was against the laws of the time.
  • The International Workingmen’s Association, the first attempt at international coordination, was founded in London in 1864. The key points were the rights of the workers to organize themselves, the right to an 8 hour working day, etc.
the rise of the labor unions1
The Rise of the Labor Unions


  • Encouraged worker-organized strikes to demand increased wages and improved working conditions.
  • Lobbied (convincing a government official) for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and children.
  • Wanted workers’ rights and collective bargaining (being able to negotiate as a group) between labor and management.

History of Labor Unions

impacts of the industrial revolution
Impacts of the Industrial Revolution

On Slavery

  • The cotton gin increased demand for slave labor on American plantations.
  • The United States and Britain outlawed the slave trade and then slavery
impacts of the industrial revolution1
Impacts of the Industrial Revolution

On Society

  • Women and children entering the workplace as cheap labor
  • Horrible Histories: Birthday and Maid
  • Introduction of reforms to end child labor
  • Expansion of education
  • Women’s increased demands for suffrage (the right to vote)
impacts of the industrial revolution2
Impacts of the Industrial Revolution

On industrialized countries

  • Population increase
  • Urbanization
  • Environmental pollution
  • Dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions
  • Increased standards of living for many but not all
  • Improved transportation
  • Increased education
  • Growth of the middle class
the middle class
The Middle Class

The Bourgeoisie (The Middle Class)

  • Lower-middle class:
    • Skilled artisans, bureaucrats, clerks, shopkeepers, and clergy.
    • Did not include factory workers, peasants, or the aristocracy.
    • There was very little separating the bourgeoisie from the laboring masses and were constantly trying to climb the social ladder.
    • They benefited the most from the compulsory education laws and were avid consumers of the books, newspapers, and state propaganda.
the middle class1
The Middle Class

The Bourgeoisie (The Middle Class)

  • Upper-middle class:
    • Bankers, factory owners, lawyers, architects, occasional professors, doctors, and high government officials.
    • They gained many of the benefits of the aristocracy, such as access to the best schools. They controlled politics, the press, and the universities.
the middle class2
The Middle Class

The Victorian Era

  • Named for Queen Victoria (1837-1901)

Horrible Histories: Victoria and Albert

  • British upper middle class served as the model for the upper middle class everywhere.

Horrible Histories: Victorian Manners and Flowers

  • Surface did not match what was beneath.

Horrible Histories: Victorian Fashion

the middle class3
The Middle Class

English Middle Class

  • Spearheaded crusades against slavery, alcohol, pornography, child labor, and women’s rights.
  • Their efforts led to a passage of a series of reforms limiting the employment of young children, setting maximum working hours for teenagers, and regulating working conditions for women.
  • Advancements in technology produced the Industrial Revolution, while advancements in science and medicine altered the lives of people living in the new industrial cities. Cultural changes soon followed.
  • The Industrial Revolution placed new (and terrible) demands on the labor of men, women, and children.
  • Workers organized labor unions to fight for improved working conditions and workers’ rights.
  • Industrialization created the growth of the middle class. Wealth increased the standard of living for some.