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Quality Assured Measurements of Animal Building Emissions: Part 1. Gas Concentrations. Albert Heber; Ji-Qin Ni; Teng Lim; Pei-Chun Tao Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Amy M. Millmier University of Missouri, Columbia, MO Larry Jacobson, Richard Nicolai

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Quality assured measurements of animal building emissions part 1 gas concentrations l.jpg

Quality Assured Measurements of Animal Building Emissions: Part 1. Gas Concentrations

Albert Heber; Ji-Qin Ni; Teng Lim; Pei-Chun Tao

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN

Amy M. Millmier

University of Missouri, Columbia, MO

Larry Jacobson, Richard Nicolai

University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN

Jacek Koziel

Texas A&M University, Amarillo, TX

Steven Hoff

Iowa State University, Ames, IA 

Yuanhui Zhang

University of Illinois, Urbana, IL

David Beasley

North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 


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Dr. Ji-Qin Ni Part 1. Gas Concentrations

Dr. Teng Lim


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Feed Part 1. Gas Concentrations

Waste

H2S, NH3

Eggs

“Livestock take a relatively benign N (and S) in the feed and convert it to a susceptible, volatile, and mobile form of N (and S)”

H. Tyrell 4/29/02


Emission sources l.jpg

Storage/Treatment Part 1. Gas Concentrations

Housing

Emission Sources

Land Application

Source: Arogo et al. 2001


Emission point exhaust fan l.jpg
Emission Point = Exhaust Fan Part 1. Gas Concentrations


Inside exhaust fans l.jpg
Inside Exhaust Fans Part 1. Gas Concentrations


1996 97 air quality study l.jpg
1996-97 Air Quality Study Part 1. Gas Concentrations

3,500 data subsets were collected between March and September


Instrument shelter l.jpg
Instrument Shelter Part 1. Gas Concentrations

Sampling

Manifolds

Gas

analyzers

PC

Full-time

field engineer


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Pegged! Part 1. Gas Concentrations

Concentration,

ppm

Summer

Winter

Carbon Dioxide Concentrations

  • Photoacoustic infrared

  • 1.0 Lpm internal pump

  • 0 - 5,000 ppm

  • Model 3600, MSA, Inc.

  • $2,000

Zero and span

calibration gases


H 2 s concentrations pulsed fluorescence technique l.jpg
H Part 1. Gas Concentrations2S Concentrations(pulsed fluorescence technique)

Site 3

H2S odor threshold

concentration = 1 ppb

1 to 1,527 ppb


Nh 3 concentrations chemiluminescence method l.jpg
NH Part 1. Gas Concentrations3 Concentrations(chemiluminescence method)

NH3 odor threshold

concentration ~ 5 ppm


Sampling location group slg l.jpg

Sampling Part 1. Gas Concentrations

manifold

Sampling Location Group (SLG)

Instrument trailer

Analyzers

Pit fan

Wall fans

Mixing

manifold

Teflon manifolds


Problems l.jpg
Problems Part 1. Gas Concentrations

  • Condensation in gas lines.

    • Keep gas temperature 3 C above that of sampled air.

    • Air conditioning in trailer caused condensation.

  • Sensor failure and drift.

  • Lack of sensor maintenance, e.g. psychrometer ran dry.

  • Lightning strikes (need UPS systems)

  • PC hard drive failed.

  • Dust and moisture buildups in gas sampling lines.

  • Pigs damaged several sensors and lines.

  • Harsh environment for sensors.


Recommendations from 1997 study l.jpg
Recommendations from 1997 Study Part 1. Gas Concentrations

  • Develop Quality Assurance Project Plan (needed or not)

  • Test, evaluate and fine-tune DAQ before taking to field

  • Test field installation and data analysis before collecting data

  • Assure good field site management

  • Establish good communication with collaborator

  • Keep gas temperature 3 C above that of sampled air.

  • Protect integrity of data collection/storage

  • Use proper statistical techniques

    • Proper sampling frequency/locations

    • Sufficient accuracy

    • Estimate and propagate all errors

    • Use proper averaging methods


Manure additive study 1999 l.jpg
Manure Additive Study, 1999 Part 1. Gas Concentrations

Hood failure:

1000’s emails!

  • First QAQC-based contract

  • Web-based Labview data monitoring

  • Biweekly calibrations

  • 39 reactors

PC DAQ

Gas Sampling

System (GSS)

Backup

Analyzers

Calibration

notebooks


Slide16 l.jpg

  • Documentation of procedures Part 1. Gas Concentrations

  • Accurate records

  • Reference gases for CEM.

  • Reactor ventilation monitoring

  • Email of alarms to reseachers.

  • Monitoring of all exhaust hoods in lab

  • Blank checks.

  • Pilot Study


Real time gas monitoring l.jpg
Real Time Gas Monitoring Part 1. Gas Concentrations

Reactor Number

Hydrogen sulfide

Ammonia

Carbon dioxide

Reactor airflow


Emission measurement methods study 2001 2002 l.jpg
Emission Measurement Methods Study – 2001-2002 Part 1. Gas Concentrations

  • “Air Sampling & Measurement Methodology for Confined Animal Housing Systems”

  • “Improving Measurement of Emissions from Poultry Houses”

  • “Odor Emissions Factors for Caged-Layers”

  • “Real-time Dust Concentration Monitor”


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CL Method: Spatial Part 1. Gas Concentrations

9 exhaust locations

1 inlet location

2 cage location

10 min sampling period

CL Method: Temporal

1 exhaust location

Continuous monitoring

Photoacoustric IR

Electrochemical sensors


Six months of gas sampling l.jpg
Six months of gas sampling Part 1. Gas Concentrations

  • Analyzer comparisons

  • Bypass pumping tests

  • Sampling period 5-10 min

  • Labview DAQ & Computer Boards

  • First test of TEOM

  • Ammonia 15 to 150 ppm

  • QAQC-based contract

  • Wireless ISP

  • Web publishing of data

  • Lightning arrestor for IS

  • Microwave oven

  • Small vane anemometers


Monitoring plan at laying house l.jpg
Monitoring Plan at Laying House Part 1. Gas Concentrations

Ammonia emission = k x 186 m3/s x (25.3 – 1.6) = 11,267 g/d


Apecab study l.jpg
APECAB Study Part 1. Gas Concentrations

Aerial: Air quality new EPA initiative for ag.

Pollutant: Volatile forms of N, S, odor.

Emissions: Outward mass flows from barns.

from

Confined: Efficient method of raising animals.

Animals: Swine is the focus in this study

Buildings: Mechanically-ventilated rooms only.


Measurement sites apecab study l.jpg
Measurement Sites: APECAB study Part 1. Gas Concentrations

All sites

described

in paper

Swine

Poultry


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Met Part 1. Gas Concentrations

tower

Thermocouple

Air sampling

To instrument

shelter

Cages

Barn A

(not shown)

Barn B

Anemometer (SVA)

Pit

RH/Temp probe

Static pressure port

Cross-sectional view

Instrument

shelter

E67

E47

1

2

Exhaust air locations

Mixing manifold

6

Air inlet group

Animal exposure group

5

Floor plan (186 m x 30 m)

Exhaust air locations

4

3

Fan number

W1

W20

N

Hall

Instrument shelter

Side view

Attic

Cages

Pit


Slide25 l.jpg

Hall Part 1. Gas Concentrations

Hall

Barns

1-12

Barn 13

Barn 14

Barn 15

Barn 16

Feed

bins

N

Lab

Service road


Control of aerial pollutant emissions from swine housing capesh l.jpg
Control of Aerial Pollutant Emissions from Swine Housing (CAPESH)

  • Test soybean oil sprinkling

  • Test the “Biocurtain”


Slide27 l.jpg

Lagoon (CAPESH)

Tunnel-ventilated

finishing houses

with flushing


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Mobile Instrument Shelters (CAPESH)

CAPESH

study

APECAB

study


Slide30 l.jpg

* (CAPESH)

*

*

*

*

Met tower

Relative humidity/temperature probe

TEOM sampler for PM10

Barn 7

Barn 8

Air sampling

Anemometer (SVA)

Static pressure port

Temperature sensor

Odor sampling location

End view

End view

Trailer

Summer air inlets

Fan #

5

Barn 7

3

1

Floor plan (61 m x 13.2 m)

2

4

Instrument trailer

S

Background air sampling

*

Attic

1-5

*

Pens

Diffusers

Side

View

Shallow pit with recycle flush

Exhaust air

sampling


Slide32 l.jpg

M1 (CAPESH)

1

1

p

Bypass pumping circuit

P: pump

Exhaust

S: solenoid

M: manifold

9.5 mm OD,

6.4 mm ID Teflon

F: filter

7.9 mm OD, 4.8 mm ID vinyl

P1

Sampling probes,

10-115 m

long

6.4 mm OD

3.2 mm ID vinyl

22.2 mm OD

15.9 mm ID

vinyl

Analyzers

F

NH3

S1

Bag fill

port

F

P3

Pressure

sensor

M3

H2S

F

Mass

flow meter

CO2

M2

f

9.5 mm OD,

6.4 mm ID Teflon

CH4/VOC

Flow

restrictors

P2

Calibration gas circuit

Exhaust

D

M4

Cal gases

S12

B

A

C

S14

6-solenoid manifold

C6H14/CH4

Bubbler

SO2

S13

H2S

NH3

NO

6-port diluter

(5 L/min)

CO2

Note: S1-S6: NO, S7-S12: NC

3.2 mm OD, 1.6 mm ID Teflon

Zero air

Air valve

Rotameter

Leak test circuit

P4

Pressure gage

Jar


Slide33 l.jpg

3-way solenoid (CAPESH)

Bypass

manifold M1

Bag fill port

Sampling

manifold M2

Analyzer sampling manifold M3

M4

Bypass pump

P1

Sampling pump

P2


Slide34 l.jpg

¼” i.d. (CAPESH)

3/8” o.d.

Teflon

Sampled air

from sampling

location group (SLG)

3-way solenoid

Flow restrictor

Mass flow meter

0-10 L/min


Sample airflow manifold pressure l.jpg
Sample airflow & manifold pressure (CAPESH)

1: Ambient, 2: Barn A, 3: Barn B


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On-Line Data Inspection (CAPESH)

Flushing peak

Barn B

Barn A

Ambient


The measurement system l.jpg
The Measurement System (CAPESH)

  • Sample system

    • Sample acquisition

    • Sample transport

    • Sample conditioning

    • Protection of analyzers from sampled gas

  • Gas analyzer: senses and generates output

  • Data recorder


Slide38 l.jpg

NH (CAPESH)3 analyzer

Pump

Catalytic

converter

Solenoid

Filter

PMT

RC

A

Capillary

Scrubber

Internal gas sampling system

Detector

0.6 L/min

Calibration at A accounts for converter inefficiency and losses in scrubber, solenoid, capillary, filter and tubing along with detector sensitivity.


Slide39 l.jpg

p (CAPESH)

Calibration at D accounts for additional error introduced by the long sampling probes and is the most desirable location to introduce calibration gas but is sometimes too impractical.

External gas sampling system

NH3 analyzer

Pump

Manifold

Catalytic

converter

10-123 m

Teflon tube

Manifold

Solenoid

Filter

D

C

PMT

RC

Restrictor

A

Capillary

Scrubber

f

Filter

Mass

flow

meter

Solenoid

Internal gas sampling system

Pump

Detector

Pressure sensor

0.6 L/min

B

Calibration at A accounts for converter inefficiency and losses in scrubber, solenoid, capillary, filter and tubing along with detector sensitivity.

4.0 L/min

Calibration at B or C accounts for additional error introduced by the external gas sampling system.




Co2 concentrations by location capesh site 11 8 02 l.jpg
CO2 Concentrations by Location (CAPESH)CAPESH Site, 11/8/02


H 2 s concentrations by location capesh site 11 8 02 l.jpg
H (CAPESH)2S Concentrations by LocationCAPESH Site, 11/8/02


Nh 3 concentrations by location capesh site 11 8 02 l.jpg
NH (CAPESH)3 Concentrations by LocationCAPESH Site, 11/8/02


Ambient nh 3 concentrations capesh site 11 8 02 l.jpg
Ambient NH (CAPESH)3 Concentrations CAPESH Site, 11/8/02



Voc concentrations by location capesh site 11 8 02 l.jpg
VOC Concentrations by Location (CAPESH)CAPESH Site, 11/8/02


Recent advances to emission measurements at livestock buildings l.jpg
Recent Advances to Emission Measurements at Livestock Buildings

  • New gas sampling system with mass flow sensor and manifold pressure sensor

  • Complete QAPP documents

  • Remote multipoint calibrations

  • Introduction of cal gas into probe

  • Non-methane VOC measurements

  • Common protocol among universities


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Building Environment Buildings

Research & Education

AgAirQuality.com

Albert J. HeberProfessor

Agricultural and Biological Engineering

Purdue University


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Thank you! Buildings

Check out www.AgAirQuality.com


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