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# Ch3.1 – Scientific Measurement Qualitative Measurements – no #’s

Ch3.1 – Scientific Measurement Qualitative Measurements – no #’s color, texture, shape, anything you experience with your senses. Quantitative Measurements – usually #’s mass, volume, amount of something, temp, time, etc Scientific Measurements Require the correct units Mass = grams

## Ch3.1 – Scientific Measurement Qualitative Measurements – no #’s

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1. Ch3.1 – Scientific Measurement • Qualitative Measurements – no #’s • color, texture, shape, anything you experience with your senses. • Quantitative Measurements – usually #’s • mass, volume, amount of something, temp, time, etc • Scientific Measurements • Require the correct units Mass = grams • volume = liters (milliliters) • distance = meters • temp = Celsius or Kelvin • time = seconds • mole = # of particles

2. Metric Conversions “ King Henry David Usually Drinks Chocolate Milk.” Mega . . Kilo Hecta Deka Basic deci centi milli . . micro . . nano Units M . . K H D U d c m . . µ . . n #6 a) 6.1 mm = cm b) 7.1mm = m i) 3.6 km = cm l) 8 L = mL o) 2 mg = kg r) 5.5 megabytes = bytes t) 12 km = µm

3. Ch3 HW#1 1 – 6 1. Qualitative or quantitative? a. Basketball is brown b. Surface of ball has indented seams c. The diameter is 31 cm d. Air pressure is 12 psi 2. Qual or quant? a. Flame is hot b. A candle has a mass of 90 g c. Wax is soft d. Candle height decreases by 4.2cm every hour 3. Name each quantity measured a. Mole b. Second c. Meter d. Kilogram 4. Order these: cm, Km, m, μm, mm, Dm 5. Which is best to measure: a. Height of letter I b. Width of this classroom c. Height of a piece of paper

4. M . . K H D U d c m . . μ . . n 6. a) o) b) p) 2.3 μg = _____ g c) 0.1 mm = __ km q) 3.8 cg = _____ μg d) 0.7 cm = mm r) e) 8.8cm = _ m s) 680 nm = _____ m f) 5.8 cm = _____ km t) g) 3.4 m = _____ km u) 355 nm = _____ m h) 1.2 km = _____ mm i) j) 4.8 mL = _ L k) 7.9 mL = _____ kL m) 5.7 kL = _____ mL n) 4.9 mg = cg

5. M . . K H D U d c m . . μ . . n 6. a) o) b) p) 2.3 μg = _____ g c) 0.1 mm = 0.0000001 km q) 3.8 cg = _____ μg d) 0.7 cm = 7 mm r) e) 8.8cm = 0.0088 m s) 680 nm = _____ m f) 5.8 cm = 0.000058 km t) g) 3.4 m = 0.0034 km u) 355 nm = _____ m h) 1.2 km = 1200000 mm i) j) 4.8 mL = _____ L k) 7.9 mL = _____ KL m) 5.7 KL = _____mL n) 4.9 mg = cg

6. M . . K H D U d c m . . μ . . n 6. a) o) b) p) 2.3 μg = _____ g c) 0.1 mm = 0.0000001 km q) 3.8 cg = _____ μg d) 0.7 cm = 7 mm r) e) 8.8cm = 0.0088 m s) 680 nm = _____ m f) 5.8 cm = 0.000058 km t) g) 3.4 m = 0.0034 km u) 355 nm = _____ m h) 1.2 km = 1200000 mm i) j) 4.8 mL = 0.0048 L k) 7.9 mL = 0.0000079 KL m) 5.7 KL = 5700000mL n) 4.9 mg = 0.49 cg

7. M . . K H D U d c m . . μ . . n 6. a) o) b) p) 2.3 μg = 0.0000023 g c) 0.1 mm = 0.0000001 km q) 3.8 cg = 3800μg d) 0.7 cm = 7 mm r) e) 8.8cm = 0.0088 m s) 680 nm = 0.000680 m f) 5.8 cm = 0.000058 km t) g) 3.4 m = 0.0034 km u) 355 nm = 0.000000355 m h) 1.2 km = 1200000 mm i) j) 4.8 mL = 0.0048 L k) 7.9 mL = 0.0000079 KL m) 5.7 KL = 5700000mL n) 4.9 mg = 0.49 cg

8. Ch3.2 – Significant Digits Value Lifter Diameter

9. Value Lifter Diameter Accuracy – how good the measuring device is. (Is it broken?) Precision – how many sig digs the device can give (Triple beam balance vs bathroom scale) From lab 1.1 :Candle - 63.1 g ( ) 63.10 g ( ) More sig digs = better measurement (in general) # of sig digs relates to precision

10. Significant Digits – Indicate precision of measure Ex: Candle – 63g → 62 – 64g 63.00 g → 62.99 – 63.01g Rules: All non zero digits are sig digits. Trapped zeros, and final zeros after decimal are significant Zeros used as placeholders are not significant Reminder: These are not just #’s, they are measurements. They have a degree of uncertainty associated with them. Examples Sig DigsExsSig Digs 2 70 200 .70 2.00 .0070 2.02 1.0070 2020 10,070 1.00280 1007.0 100,280 20.0 Ch3 HW#2 7 – 11

11. Ch3 HW#2 7 – 11 7) When is a measurement precise but inaccurate? 8) Comment on accuracy & precision a) 99 out of 100 shots made. b) 99 out of 100 hit front rim but bounce off. c) 33 out of 100 made, rest miss. 9) Sig Digs a) 143g b) 0.074 c) 8.750x10-2 Ng d) 1.072 km e) 10800 cm f) 5.00 dm3

12. Ch3 HW#2 7 – 11 7) When is a measurement precise but inaccurate? Ex: triple beam balance that is broken 8) Comment on accuracy & precision a) 99 out of 100 shots made. b) 99 out of 100 hit front rim but bounce off. c) 33 out of 100 made, rest miss. 9) Sig Digs a) 143g b) 0.074 c) 8.750x10-2 Ng d) 1.072 km e) 10800 cm f) 5.00 dm3

13. Ch3 HW#2 7 – 11 7) When is a measurement precise but inaccurate? Ex: triple beam balance that is broken 8) Comment on accuracy & precision a) 99 out of 100 shots made. Acc and prec b) 99 out of 100 hit front rim but bounce off.Prec, not acc c) 33 out of 100 made, rest miss. Not acc, not prec 9) Sig Digs a) 143g b) 0.074 c) 8.750x10-2 Ng d) 1.072 km e) 10800 cm f) 5.00 dm3

14. Ch3 HW#2 7 – 11 7) When is a measurement precise but inaccurate? Ex: triple beam balance that is broken 8) Comment on accuracy & precision a) 99 out of 100 shots made. Acc and prec b) 99 out of 100 hit front rim but bounce off.Prec, not acc c) 33 out of 100 made, rest miss. Not acc, not prec 9) Sig Digs a) 143g b) 0.074 c) 8.750x10-2 Ng 3 2 4 d) 1.072 km e) 10800 cm f) 5.00 dm3

15. Ch3 HW#2 7 – 11 7) When is a measurement precise but inaccurate? Ex: triple beam balance that is broken 8) Comment on accuracy & precision a) 99 out of 100 shots made. Acc and prec b) 99 out of 100 hit front rim but bounce off.Prec, not acc c) 33 out of 100 made, rest miss. Not acc, not prec 9) Sig Digs a) 143g b) 0.074 c) 8.750x10-2 Ng 3 2 4 d) 1.072 km e) 10800 cm f) 5.00 dm3 4 3 3

16. 10) Round to 3 sig digs a) 98.473 L b) 0.00076321 g c) 57.048 m d) 12.17 0c e) 0.0074983x104 mm 11) Round to 3 sig digs a) 87.073 m b) 4.3621x108 m c) 0.01552 m d) 9009 m e) 1.7777x10-3 m

17. 10) Round to 3 sig digs a) 98.473 L b) 0.00076321 g c) 57.048 m 98.5 0.000763 57.0 d) 12.17oC e) 0.0074983x104 mm 11) Round to 3 sig digs a) 87.073 m b) 4.3621x108 m c) 0.01552 m d) 9009 m e) 1.7777x10-3 m

18. 10) Round to 3 sig digs a) 98.473 L b) 0.00076321 g c) 57.048 m 98.5 0.000763 57.0 d) 12.17oC e) 0.0074983x104 mm 12.2 0.000750x104 11) Round to 3 sig digs a) 87.073 m b) 4.3621x108 m c) 0.01552 m d) 9009 m e) 1.7777x10-3 m

19. 10) Round to 3 sig digs a) 98.473 L b) 0.00076321 g c) 57.048 m 98.5 0.000763 57.0 d) 12.17oC e) 0.0074983x104 mm 12.2 0.000750x104 11) Round to 3 sig digs a) 87.073 m b) 4.3621x108 m c) 0.01552 m 87.1 4.36x108 0.0155 d) 9009 m e) 1.7777x10-3 m 9010 1.78x10-3

20. Ch3.3 Scientific Notation In your HW: Mass of 1 gold atom: 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 327 g 1 gram of H2 gas: 301 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 molecules 1 wavelength of red light: 0.000 000 780 meters

21. Ex 1) Standard to sci not Ex 2) Sci not to Standard 3750 = 4.72x10-3 = 12,472 = 3.70x10-6 = 0.000510 = 4.97X104 = 0.0000200 =

22. Calculations Ex 3) (4.44x104)(3.72x103) (5.76x10-10)(1.03x105) = 2.9535x1022 or 2.784x1012 ?

23. Calculations Ex 3) (4.44x104)(3.72x103) (5.76x10-10)(1.03x105) (If it’s on the bottom DIVIDE!) With Sig Digs: 2.78x1012 = 2.9535x1022 or 2.784x1012 ?

24. (Ch5.3 – Spectra) Light travels like a wave

25. (Ch5.3 – Spectra) Light travels like a wave All light travels at the speed of light: 300,000,000 m/s The different colors have different wavelengths and different frequencies and follow the same equation: Lamda Nu speed of light → c = λ · ν (3x108m/s) wavelength ↑ ↖ frequency

26. Ex 4) Red light has a wavelength of 780 nm, what is its frequency? Ex 5) Blue light has a wavelength of 460 nm, what is its frequency? Ch3 HW#3 12 – 15

27. Ch3 HW#3 12 – 15 12. (In class) Write each measurement in scientific notation and determine the number of significant figures in each. a. 0.05730 m b. 8765 dm c. .00073 d. 12 basketball players e. 0.010 km f. 507 thumbtacks 14. Find the frequency of each of these colors of light, given their wavelengths: use the formula: c = λν a. Orange light with a wavelength of 6.00x10-7 m b. Yellow light with a wavelength of 580x10-9 m c. Violet light with a wavelength of 400 nm

28. Ch3 HW#3 12 – 15 12. (In class) Write each measurement in scientific notation and determine the number of significant figures in each. a. 0.05730 m b. 8765 dm c. .00073 4 4 2 d. 12 basketball players e. 0.010 km f. 507 thumbtacks 2 2 3 14. Find the frequency of each of these colors of light, given their wavelengths: use the formula: c = λν a. Orange light with a wavelength of 6.00x10-7 m b. Yellow light with a wavelength of 580x10-9 m c. Violet light with a wavelength of 400 nm

29. Ch3 HW#3 12 – 15 12. (In class) Write each measurement in scientific notation and determine the number of significant figures in each. a. 0.05730 m b. 8765 dm c. .00073 4 4 2 d. 12 basketball players e. 0.010 km f. 507 thumbtacks 2 2 3 14. Find the frequency of each of these colors of light, given their wavelengths: use the formula: c = λν a. Orange light with a wavelength of 6.00x10-7 m b. Yellow light with a wavelength of 580x10-9 m c. Violet light with a wavelength of 400 nm a. 3x108 = (6x10-7).ν ν = 5.00x1014 Hz b. 3x108 = (580x10-9).ν ν = 5.17x1014 Hz c. 3x108 = (400x10-9).ν ν = 7.50x1014 Hz

30. 15. Solve the following problems and give your answer to the correct number of significant figures. (8.3m)(2.22m) b. (1.8x10-3m)(2.9x10-2m) c. d. e. f. g.

31. 15. Solve the following problems and give your answer to the correct number of significant figures. (8.3m)(2.22m) b. (1.8x10-3m)(2.9x10-2m) c. d. e. f. g. a. 18.426  18 b. 5.22x10-5  5.2x10-5 c. 674.56  675

32. 15. Solve the following problems and give your answer to the correct number of significant figures. (8.3m)(2.22m) b. (1.8x10-3m)(2.9x10-2m) c. d. e. f. g. a. 18.426  18 b. 5.22x10-5  5.2x10-5 c. 674.56  675 d. 0.0173202614  0.017 e. 1.2  1 f. 0.1829519451  0.183

33. 15. Solve the following problems and give your answer to the correct number of significant figures. (8.3m)(2.22m) b. (1.8x10-3m)(2.9x10-2m) c. d. e. f. g. a. 18.426  18 b. 5.22x10-5  5.2x10-5 c. 674.56  675 d. 0.0173202614  0.017 e. 1.2  1 f. 0.1829519451  0.183 g. 16.87794872  16.9

34. Ch5.3 – Atomic Spectra Provides another way to ID elements. Each has a unique “ Fingerprint. ” e- e-

35. Ch5.3 – Atomic Spectra Provides another way to ID elements. Each has a unique “ Fingerprint. ” e- Electrons jump to excited states when they absorb photons of energy. They drop back to their base states and e- release photons of energy.

36. Ch5.3 – Atomic Spectra Provides another way to ID elements. Each has a unique “ Fingerprint. ” e- Electrons jump to excited states when they absorb photons of energy. They drop back to their base states and e- release photons of energy. Photon – a small bundle of energy Sometimes the photon released is visible light

37. Ch5.3 – Atomic Spectra Provides another way to ID elements. Each has a unique “ Fingerprint. ” e- Electrons jump to excited states when they absorb photons of energy. They drop back to their base states and e- release photons of energy. Photon – a small bundle of energy Sometimes the photon released is visible light Light is a very small portion of a much larger set of waves called The Electromagnetic Spectrum. These waves differ in wavelength and frequency but they all travel at the Speed of light, c = 3x108 m/s.

38. The different waves of the Electromagnetic Spectrum differ in energy. As the frequency goes up, the energy goes up. E/M Spectrum

39. c = 3x108 m/s c = λ · ν Ex 1) What is the frequency of red light with a wavelength of 700 nm?

40. Energy of a photon: E = h · ν Plank’s Constant = 6.62 x 10-34 J·s Ex 2) What is the energy associated with a photon of red light, with a frequency of 4.3 x 1014Hz?

41. Energy of a photon: E = h · ν Plank’s Constant = 6.62 x 10-34 J·s Ex 2) What is the energy associated with a photon of red light, with a frequency of 4.3 x 1014Hz? E = h · v E = ? = (6.62 x 10-34 J·s) · (4.3 x 1014 ⅟sec) v = 4.3 x 1014Hz = 2.84 x 10-19J h = 6.62 x 10-7m

42. HW #5) A hydrogen lamp emits visible light with a wavelength of 6.56 x 10-7m. What is the frequency associated with this radiation? λ = 6.56 x 10-7m v = ? Ch5 HW #5 1-7

43. Ch5 HW#5 1. What is meant by the term frequency? What are its units? 2. Describe the relationship between wavelength and frequency. 3. What is the frequency of radiation with a wavelength of 5.0x10-8 m?

44. Ch5 HW#5 1. What is meant by the term frequency? What are its units? 2. Describe the relationship between wavelength and frequency. 3. What is the frequency of radiation with a wavelength of 5.0x10-8 m? c = λ · ν 3x108m/s = (5.0x10-8m) .ν ν = 6.0x10-15 Hz

45. 4. Visible light is a small portion of the EM spectrum and it is commonly broken down to the colors ROYGBIV. Complete the table: Color: Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet λ: 650x10-9 550x10-9 450x10-9 350x10-9 ν: 4.3x1014 6.0x1014 7.5x1014 c = λ · ν

46. 4. Visible light is a small portion of the EM spectrum and it is commonly broken down to the colors ROYGBIV. Complete the table: Color: Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet λ: 6.98x10-7650x10-9 550x10-95x10-7 450x10-94x10-7 350x10-9 ν: 4.3x1014 6.0x1014 7.5x1014 c = λ · ν

47. 4. Visible light is a small portion of the EM spectrum and it is commonly broken down to the colors ROYGBIV. Complete the table: Color: Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet λ: 6.98x10-7650x10-9 550x10-95x10-7 450x10-94x10-7 350x10-9 ν: 4.3x10144.6x1014 5.5x1014 6.0x10146.7x1014 7.5x10148.6x1014 c = λ · ν

48. 5. A hydrogen lamp emits several lines in the visible spectrum including one with a wavelength of 6.56x10-7 m. What is the associated frequency? 6. What is the energy of a photon whose frequency is 3.0x1012Hz? 7. What is the energy of a photon whose frequency is 5.90x1012Hz?

49. 5. A hydrogen lamp emits several lines in the visible spectrum including one with a wavelength of 6.56x10-7 m. What is the associated frequency? c = λ · ν 3x108m/s = (6.56x10-7m) .ν ν = 4.57x1014 Hz 6. What is the energy of a photon whose frequency is 3.0x1012Hz? 7. What is the energy of a photon whose frequency is 5.90x1012Hz?

50. 5. A hydrogen lamp emits several lines in the visible spectrum including one with a wavelength of 6.56x10-7 m. What is the associated frequency? c = λ · ν 3x108m/s = (6.56x10-7m) .ν ν = 4.57x1014 Hz 6. What is the energy of a photon whose frequency is 3.0x1012Hz? E = h · ν = (6.62x10-34Js)(3.0x1012Hz) = 2.0x10-21 J 7. What is the energy of a photon whose frequency is 5.90x1012Hz?

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