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ARCHITECTURE HISTORY

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  1. ARCHITECTURE HISTORY ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  2. عمــارةفجر المسيحية Early Christian Architecture INTRODUCTION ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  3. Early Christian Architecture - Influences ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  4. Analysis of Architecture Styles Elements • Plans • Walls • Openings • Roofs • Columns • Moldings • Ornaments • Composition • Construction • Function • Treatment • Position ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  5. العوامل المؤثرة في تكوين العمارة الرومانية Influence FactorsRomans Architecture There were six factors that influence the construction of architecture styles which are: • Historical • Geographical • Geological • Climatic • Religious • Social Historical Factors Natural Factors Civil Factors ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  6. A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a german documentary, claimed to be the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  7. Geographical • Christianity had its birth in Beit Lahim (Judaea), an eastern province of the Roman Empire • directly it became a living organism , carried by S. Peter, S. Paul, and other missionaries to Rome, the centre of the World-Empire and the fountain-head of power and influence • In spite of opposition and persecution, the new religion took root and grew, till it was strong enough to become the recognized universal religion of the whole Roman Empire. • Early Christian architecture at Rome was influenced by, and was the logical outcome of, existing Roman art, and it was modified in other parts of the Empire according to the type already recognized as suitable for the geographical situation of those countries, such as Syria, Asia Minor, North Africa, and Egypt. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  8.   Early Christian areas ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  9. map of Rome Geography. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  10. Detail of Pirro Ligorio’s Imago antiquae urbis showing Colosseum area. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  11. Basilicas ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  12. Geological • Geological influences have acted indirectly on Early Christian • architecture, for the ruins of Roman buildings often provided the • quarry whence materials were obtained. • This influenced the style, both construction and decoration ; for • columns and other architectural features, as well as fine sculptures • and mosaics from older buildings, were worked into basilican • churches of the new faith. • Domes, vaults and walls were formed of concrete, and they were • faced with brick, stone, alabaster, porphyry and other marble while White and colored marbles were imported from- all parts of the Empire • Roman architecture spread over the world, and variously • influenced by the materials found in the widely differing localities • but concrete, which in conjunction with brick and stone casing was • the favorite uniformity material of Roman architecture style • Local geological influences in Syria, as at Baalbek, also in Egypt, • as at Philae, yield many quarries so that stone blocks took the place of Roman concrete, ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  13. Roman building materials • Marble from Rome and all over Italy • Travertine, a hard limestone from Tivoli • Tufa, a volcanic substance of which the hills of Rome are mainly composed ; • Peperino, a stone of volcanic origin from Mount Albano ; • Lava from volcanic eruptions • excellent sand and gravel. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  14. Limestone ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  15. Limestone ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  16. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  17. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  18. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  19. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  20. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  21. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  22. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  23. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  24. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  25. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  26. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  27. Sand Soil ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  28. Travertine ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  29. A cement mithraeum, in Italy ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  30. A cement building ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  31. Mud bricks ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  32. Fired bricks ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  33. Marble ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  34. Climate • The climate of Italy, the centre of building activity has variety of climatic conditions and has diversity of architectural features and treatment in the peninsula, • The differing climates of the various Roman provinces from England to North Africa, and from Syria to Spain, produced local modifications in details which leave little choice in general design • The climatic conditions of such Roman provinces as Egypt, Syria, and North Africa where Christianity was established were more or less varied, and naturally modified the style in those countries where the fiercer sun and hotter climate necessitated small windows and other Eastern features. • North Italy has the climate of the temperate region of Europe, Central Italy is genial and sunny, while the south is almost tropical. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  35. Religious • Christianity has striking rise, and rapidity diffused throughout the civilized world, and, in all subsequent ages, • Christianity has inspired greatest monuments building and the Christian communities established in Eastern Mediterranean, in Syria, Africa, Greece, and Italy, lead to many ruins of Early Christian basilican churches • the God preached by S. Paul was " not like unto gold or silver or stone graven by art and device of man," nor a God that dwelled " in temples made with hands " like those of the old Greeks and Romans which were built to shelter the statues of the gods. • The purpose of the Christian church was to shelter worshippers who met for prayer and praise to an unseen Deity, and, during the unsettled conditions at the beginning of Christianity, various places were adapted for this worship. • Thus the building of pagan temples ceased before any attempt was made to build Christian churches. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  36. Constantine decree 313 A.D., give Christianity equal rights with other religions, and in A.D. 323 he professed Christianity, which became the official religion of the Roman Empire, and began to build churches of a type suitable to their needs and ritual. • churchesFortified by its official position and freed from the need for unity within, which had been engendered by persecution. • So Early laid foundations of the temporal power of the Papacy, steadily increased, especially under Popes Hadrian I and Leo II. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  37. Social • Constantine changed the capital of the Empire from Rome to Byzantium in A.D. 324, when the old Roman political system came to an end • Besides the troubles caused by Julian the Apostate, Christianity suffered further disabilities during the unsettled conditions consequent upon the division of the Roman Empire, which first took place in A.D. 365 when Valentinian became Emperor of the West and his brother Valens of the East. • Theodosius the Great (A.D. 379-395) reunited, for a time, the Eastern and Western Empires, • again the seat of power was changed, and Theodoric the Goth reigned in Italy (A.D. 493–526) and , Byzantine art influenced Early Christian art by way of Ravenna, which rivalled Rome in importance and was the capital of the Gothic Dynasty A.Daa. 493–552 with the exception of a short period when it was subdued by Justinian (A.D. 537). ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  38. Kings were elected for the separate states of Spain, Northern Africa, and Italy, where King Odoacer recognized the supremacy of the one Roman Emperor at Constantinople. • So it is clear that these many social changes and political disturbances could not fail to be reflected in the architecture of a period in which great formative forces were at work. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  39. Roman aqueduct ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  40. Arena, Nimes ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  41. Historical • The Early Christian period is generally taken as lasting from • Constantine to the death of Gregory the Great (A.D. 604), although in • Rome and many Italian cities it continued up to the tenth century. The • incursions of the Huns into Germany about A.D. 376 eventually brought • about invasions from the north into Italy. • in A.D. 410 Rome was sacked by the Goths. So many • conflicting forces were at work in Europe which arrested during this • period till A.D. 451, when the defeat of Attila, King of the Huns, by • Chalons who aided in the consolidation of Christianity in Europe. • In A.D. 568 the Lombards penetrated into Italy and held the • northern part for 200 years. Then in A.D. 800 Charlemagne was • crowned by the Pope in Rome, and from this date the Empire was • styled the Holy Roman Empire, a title retained till A.D. 1800. Under • Pope Gregory the Great (A.D. 590–604) ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  42. Early Christian architecture, the latest phase of Roman art, gradually • fell into disuse, and for the next two centuries architectural • development was practically at a standstill in Europe ; and though • the influence of Byzantium asserted itself, old Roman traditions were • in abeyance till the time when Romanesque architecture was • gradually evolved. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  43. Early Christians Architecture Comparative Analysis ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  44. Early Christians Architecture Comparative Analysis A. Plans The Early Christians followed the basilican model for their new churches and may also have used old Roman halls, baths, dwelling-houses, and even pagan temples as places of worship. The bell-tower dates from this period, is a prototype of Mediaeval towers. An isolated circular baptistery was generally attached to the chief basilican church or cathedral of a city. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  45. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  46. The vestibule    The Lokva or Pond2 The portal of the basilica3-4 The naves5 The shrine6 The triforium7 The transept8 The pastophorium9 The baptistery    The frescoes10 The font11 The proaulion12 The hall of katekumens13 The Capitulum14 The bath15 The graves    The bottom   ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  47. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD map of Rome reveals an interesting contrast of Christian versus non-Christian monuments

  48. ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  49. Early Christian Basilicas Form ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD

  50. Rotunda of the Greek: Resurrection was built to be where Christ was buried: ENG.NABEEL M. AIAD