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Race ≠Racism Racism ≠ Ethnocentrism. There is a legitimate place for the concept of race in biology; indeed it is important for conservation of wildlife Species : organisms that breed with each other, but not with others.

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There is a legitimate place for the concept of race in biology; indeed it is important for conservation of wildlifeSpecies: organisms that breed with each other, but not with others

Polar bear (Ursusmaritimus) Brown bear, (Ursusarctos)

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Race: Same species, potential to breed with each other, but geographic separation created “enough” genetic distinction for a sub-species.

Ursusarctosarctos – Eurasian brown bear Grizzly bear (Ursusarctoshorribulus)

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“Race” in humansRace would require that humans can be distinguished by phenotypic characteristics that reflect “enough” genetic differences corresponding to geographically distinct ancestral origins.

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“Race” in humans: are we sub-species?We do have genetic differences, but they are very small compared to those of other speciesEven the legitimate cases of genetic differences don’t seem very stable

Example: the genes for sickle cell anemia match the geographic location of malaria. Homozygotes for sickle cell is often fatal, but heterozygotes gives immunity against malaria. But these genes rapidly decrease in the population in the absence of malaria. Is that race?

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Racism requires

1. Belief in human races2. Belief that race is a significant determinant of (ranked) ability ∴ Not all those who believe in “Race” are racists (eg most abolitionists.)Appiah: distinction between 'racialism' and 'racism'

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Generally, Race = biology and Ethnicity = culture

Ethnocentric: Belief that culture is a significant determinant of (ranked) ability

One can be ethnocentric without being racist: “if those Arabs would just convert to Christianity we wouldn’t have a problem”

RamánGrosfoguel argues against: 'racializedethnicities' (“jewish racial stereotypes”) and 'ethnicizedraces’ (above quote ignores Christian Arabs) indicates 'racial/ethnic identity' operates as one system