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Managing IT. An examination of the effects of motivational preferences in IT management. Traditional IT Centralized control Resource restrictions Formal methodologies and discipline Careful planning Administrative support. New IT Distributed control Resource expansion

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managing it

Managing IT

An examination of the effects of motivational preferences in IT management

it is not all about technology
Traditional IT

Centralized control

Resource restrictions

Formal methodologies and discipline

Careful planning

Administrative support

New IT

Distributed control

Resource expansion

Few methodologies and unrestricted access

Rapid development

Strategic impact

It is Not All About Technology
roles
Roles
  • Steering Committee
  • CIO
  • Manager
  • Project Manager
  • Analyst
  • Programmer
  • Systems Programmer
  • User
is organization
IS Organization

CIO

Development

Operations

Network

Architecture

Data

Administration

situational leadership
Situational Leadership
  • Most managerial tasks require management of both task and interpersonal relationships
  • Task specification refers to defining the job to be done
  • Relationship management refers to taking care of the motivational needs of employees
situational principles
Situational Principles
  • The appropriate motivational technique depends on the development level of the maturity level of individual employees on the specific task being managed
hierarchy of needs maslow
Hierarchy of Needs(Maslow)

Lower needs dominate behavior until they are satisfied.

  • Self actualization
  • Esteem (recognition)
  • Social (affiliation)
  • Safety (security)
  • Physiological (food, shelter, clothing)
maslow
Maslow

Self

Actualization

Esteem

Social

Hygiene

Security

Physiological

hersey blanchard
Hersey-Blanchard
  • Task Orientation: Degree of specification required for structuring or defining a task for a worker
  • Relationship: Support required for an employees attitudes and personal feelings
hersey blanchard task relationship grid
Hersey BlanchardTask-Relationship Grid

III

Consult

II

Sell

Relationship

IV

Delegate

I

Tell

Task

situational growth
Situational Growth
  • As people mature, their managerial needs change from complete task definitions with little concern for relationship to a mature employees need merely for goals and feedback
  • The most difficult managerial stage is stage II (Sell) which requires maximum time in both task and relationship
management styles
Management Styles
  • Most managers have one or two styles that they are most comfortable with.
  • The art of effective management is matching a managerial tactic to the current needs of the employee
  • The most effective managers employ the widest range of styles
sub optimal strategies abandonment
Sub Optimal StrategiesAbandonment

III

Consult

II

Sell

Relationship

IV

Delegate

I

Tell

Task

sub optimal strategies technical
Sub-Optimal StrategiesTechnical

III

Consult

II

Sell

Relationship

IV

Delegate

I

Tell

Task

sub optimal strategies american
Sub-Optimal StrategiesAmerican

III

Consult

II

Sell

Relationship

IV

Delegate

I

Tell

Task

motivational needs mcclelland
Motivational Needs(McClelland)
  • Need for Achievement
  • Need for Affiliation
  • Need for Power
mcclelland
McClelland
  • The Achieving Society

TAT and other evaluation tools

  • The value of power
need for achievement
Need for Achievement

Represents a need to accomplish.

  • Evaluators, not risk takers
  • Concerned more with accomplishment than reward
  • Need feedback on work
  • High task, low relationship
need for affiliation
Need for Affiliation

Represents a need for establishing, maintaining or restoring a positive friendship relationship from peers and colleagues.

  • Peer acceptance more important than managerial rewards
  • Good as support staff
  • High relationship
need for power
Need for Power
  • Need for accomplishment through others
  • Socialized vs unsocialized power
  • Respond to competition
  • Desire recognition
  • Risk takers
nach and npow
nAch and nPow
  • Both lead to outstanding activity
  • Power people understand and are active in politics
  • Power people seek to control channels of communication
  • Achievement seek to improve daily performance
  • Achievement people are uncomfortable with politics or control
typical profile teacher
Typical ProfileTeacher

Research

Instruct

Pow

Ach

Aff

is motivation
IS Motivation

The computer field attracts people with the highest growth need of all 500 occupations measured, they have the lowest need for social interaction”

Couger, Computerworld, 1990

the high achievement profile
The High Achievement Profile
  • Evaluators who take calculated risk. Prefer moderately difficult challenges, and work harder on these tasks.

Objectives and challenges work. Accurate feedback on task difficulty appreciated.

the high achievement profile1
The High Achievement Profile
  • Tend to perceive their probability of success as high, but become more accurate with information or practice. Rely on facts with a generalized optimism.

Feel they are better than average. May overcommit unless they are experienced.

the high achievement profile2
The High Achievement Profile
  • Work hardest for personal achievement or when their efforts will make a difference in the outcome. Not particularly motivated by routine, unchallenging tasks.

Value a reward system that rewards individual contribution. Assign challenging work.

the high achievement profile3
The High Achievement Profile
  • Derive satisfaction from having initiated an action that is successful.

Prize freedom and independence. Do not take well to suggestions or directions about what they should think or do. Set collaborative goals.

the high achievement profile4
The High Achievement Profile
  • Need accurate feedback on performance.

Want feedback and evaluation based on results rather than procedures or feelings and relationships.

the high achievement profile5
The High Achievement Profile
  • Believe that pay for difficult tasks should increase more rapidly than do non nAch profiles.

Pay recognition for skills and performance is important as a measure of success.

the high achievement profile6
The High Achievement Profile
  • Value experts over friends.

Expert power and expertise are necessary in establishing managerial authority.

the high achievement profile7
The High Achievement Profile
  • Tend to avoid conflict.

May need to recast conflict or consciously manage conflict situations to avoid withdrawal or caving in.

the high affiliation profile
The High Affiliation Profile
  • Tend to avoid leadership

Very uncomfortable making hard decisions that will lead to alienation. Will go along to gain approval rather than set the pattern

the high affiliation profile1
The High Affiliation Profile
  • Value friends over experts

May choose poor advisors. Peer pressure may be paramount. Necessary to sway the whole group.

the high affiliation profile2
The High Affiliation Profile
  • Tend to lack discipline and organization

May need outside structure and organization.

the high power profile
The High Power Profile
  • Comfortable with magager and leadership roles.
  • Enjoy motivating and leading others. Tend to collect trappings of power and authority. Important to distinguish socialized from unsocialized (selfish) power.
the high power profile1
The High Power Profile
  • Wish to control the means of influencing subordinates

Likely to be status and position conscious. Very concerned with process and authority.

the high power profile2
The High Power Profile
  • Enjoy conflict and disputes

May appear pushy and confrontational. May get their way at the expense of organizational growth.

motivational consequences
Motivational Consequences
  • Hard to change fundamental character
  • Can reframe statements from one Need structure to another
  • Useful to speak in the language of the person being managed
  • Defined in terms of language
evaluation of profiles
Evaluation of Profiles
  • Thematic Apperception Test

Analysis of stories and examples related in free form by subjects.

practical evaluation approaches
Practical Evaluation Approaches

Verbal cues from stories and conversations

  • Hero

Subject or person that the individual discusses

  • Press

Environment around the hero that exerts influence on the hero

  • Focus

Uniqueness, Intensity, Frequency

evidence of npow
Evidence of nPow
  • Identifies self as hero
  • Influence or defeatr others in stories
  • Surroundings (office walls, car, etc.)
evidence of naff
Evidence of nAff
  • Hero has one or more social ties
  • Hero is a member of a congenial group
  • Hero often seen at social events
  • Surroundings (pictures, activities, etc.)
evidence of nach
Evidence of nAch
  • Others as hero, or may not have one
  • Tend to be reluctant in telling stories
  • Focus on success or professional activities
  • Surroundings (activities, etc.)
sources of power french raven
Sources of Power(French & Raven)
  • Reward (ability to grant rewards)
  • Coercive (punishment)
  • Legitimate (leader has a right)
  • Referent (identification with what or who the leader represents)
  • Expert (knowledge or expertise)
motivation
Motivation
  • Salary and extrinsic motivation
  • Intrinsic and social motivation
  • Leadership and headship
motivational opportunity
Motivational Opportunity
  • All motivational profiles are valuable
  • Determine the primary motivational profile of colleagues and associates
  • Offer appropriate social rewards for performance in kind other than money or promotion.
people
People
  • IT Motivational Profile
  • Recruiting and Retention
  • Teams and Projects
rational retention strategies
Rational Retention Strategies
  • Train & Retain
  • Train & Replace
  • Entrepreneurial
  • Layered Skills
  • Restrict & Limit
  • Outsource