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IT Governance, Managing IT. The Investing Community. Public Corporations Stockholders (shareholders) Stock exchanges U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Auditors. How it Works. Corporation issues shares, purchased by investors Investors receive returns

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Presentation Transcript

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The Investing Community

  • Public Corporations

  • Stockholders (shareholders)

  • Stock exchanges

  • U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

  • Auditors

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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How it Works

  • Corporation issues shares, purchased by investors

  • Investors receive returns

    • Share appreciation (realized when sold)

    • Dividends

  • Other ways to invest

    • Derivatives

    • Bonds

    • Mutual funds

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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How it Works (continued)

  • Investors buy and sell shares, based on:

    • Evaluation of the corporation

    • Perspectives on how others evaluate the corporation

    • Other criteria?

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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Evaluating the Corporation

  • Annual Report to Shareholders

  • Form 10-K report – official, more detailed report to SEC

    • Detailed financial reports

    • Business summary

    • Properties

    • Legal proceedings

  • Role of the auditor

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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System Built on Trust

  • Corporation reports results...

    • Accurately

    • Completely

    • Financial and non-financial

  • Auditor’s opinion unbiased

  • SEC and stock exchanges are watchdogs

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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Breakdowns

  • Tyco International

  • WorldCom (now MCI)

  • Enron

  • Effects

    • Enriched (now imprisoned) executives

    • Shafted shareholders

    • Diminished (or extinct) companies

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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Sarbanes-Oxley Act –Provisions Related to IT

  • Section 302 - Personal certification of financial reports and effective controls by CEO/CFO

  • Section 404 – Annual evaluation and certification of financial controls

  • Effects:

    • Higher visibility of IT to executive leadership

    • IT governance on a higher level

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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What is IT Governance?

  • How the organization makes decisions about the use of information technology

    • Enterprise architecture

    • Project priorities

    • Reporting metrics

    • Cost allocation

    • Sourcing

  • Who has the authority? Who has input?

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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Signs of Dysfunction (Luftman)

  • Diffuse, uncoordinated decisions

  • Business units not accountable to IT

  • No unifying enterprise architecture

  • Spending too much (or don’t know)

  • Few or no measures of IT effectiveness

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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Governance Decisions

  • CIO reporting relationships – to CEO, COO, or CFO

  • Level of centralization of IT organization

  • The players and relative influence

    • IT staff and managers

    • Business managers

    • Executive leadership

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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Governance Drivers

  • Organizational form – centralized, decentralized, multi-national

  • Centrality of IT to organizational mission

    • IT-enabled products

    • IT-enhanced operations

  • Organizational environment – competitive, regulatory

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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Managing IT – An Oxymoron?

  • No...but it’s close

  • Gap (chasm?) between business and IT

  • Different languages between business and IT

    • Business – sales, growth, ROI, market share, cost control, etc.

    • IT – XML, Ajax, JavaScript, .Net, etc.

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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Bridging the Gap

  • Help senior management to understand IT issues

  • Speak their language

  • CIO briefing an exercise

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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Working With Senior Management

  • Not willing to understand your problems

  • Asking for the moon without paying for it

    • “Work smarter, not harder”

    • “Doing more with less”

    • “Be creative”

  • Vendors willing to bypass CIO, sell to senior business managers

  • Other problems?

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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Lessons Learned in Managing IT (from Jack Crosby)

  • Have a vision and a plan for IT

  • Form an IT steering committee

  • Never tell other unit heads that they don’t understand IT

  • Break down large projects

  • Have a systems development methodology

  • Measured investments in new technology

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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Lessons Learned (continued)

  • Be cautious with vendors and their concept of “partnering”

  • Organizational politics matter

  • Measurements matter – what doesn’t get measured, doesn’t get done

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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Catatech Industries Case - Questions

  • With respect to the question of electronic commerce, what are the motivators, drivers, issues for:

    • Marisa Rivera?

    • Carlos Fernandez?

  • How much and in what ways are their motivations in conflict, and congruence?

ADMN645 - IT Governance, Managing IT


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