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Boom Times to Hard Times. Ch 20 Postwar Social Change Ch 21 Politics & Prosperity Ch 22 Crash & Depression Ch 23 The New Deal. Postwar Social Change. Chapter 20. Society in the 1920s. Women became more liberal Started working and being independent People moved from rural to urban

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boom times to hard times

Boom Times to Hard Times

Ch 20 Postwar Social Change

Ch 21 Politics & Prosperity

Ch 22 Crash & Depression

Ch 23 The New Deal

society in the 1920s
Society in the 1920s
  • Women became more liberal
  • Started working and being independent
  • People moved from rural to urban
  • African Americans moved north for jobs
  • Suburbs boomed
mass media
Mass Media
  • Movies became very popular
  • “Talkies” – movies with sound
  • Newspapers had circulation wars
  • Radio reached 10 million in 1929
  • Stations broadcast shows and news
jazz age
Jazz Age
  • Grew out of African American music
  • Clubs and Dance halls drew young crowds
  • People feared its improvisational ways
  • Spurred painting, literature, and other arts
  • Harlem Renaissance – center of jazz movement
cultural conflicts prohibition
Cultural Conflicts *Prohibition
  • Purpose = eliminate drunkenness, prevent absenteeism and job accidents
  • Bootleggers – made and sold alcohol illegally
  • Speakeasies – bars that operated illegally
  • Usually run by organized crime (mob)
  • Most famous: Al Capone
  • Fundamentalism movement
  • Basic belief that Bible is absolute truth
  • Teaching evolution became problem
  • Scopes Trial – teacher arrested for evolution lesson
racial tensions
Racial Tensions
  • Violence against African Americans rose
  • KKK resurged
  • Crimes against all kinds of minorities
  • NAACP tried to help
a republican decade the red scare
A Republican Decade The Red Scare
  • Fear of communism from Russia
  • Jailed radicals without evidence
  • Supreme Court ruled to limit freedom of Speech
  • Labor Strikes
    • Fueled fears of communism
    • Police, steel workers, miners
    • Most saw unions as problem makers
    • Strikes declined as wages rose
harding presidency
Harding Presidency
  • Isolationism – avoiding political or economic alliances with other countries
  • Wanted disarmament – give up weapons
  • National Origins Act – quotas on immigration
  • Corruption in administration
  • Tea Pot Dome – Sec. of Interior gave illegal oil drilling rights for bribes
coolidge presidency
Coolidge Presidency
  • Took over when Harding died
  • Continued Laissez Fair economy
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact – 60 nations vowed to outlaw war, didn’t work
  • Did not run again
  • GOP chose Herbert Hoover instead
business boom
Business Boom
  • Credit used to buy anything
  • Electric power allowed for new inventions to be produced
  • Mass-media ads for all products
  • Countries productivity rose
ford and the automobile
Ford and the Automobile
  • 1908 Model T sold 30,000
  • Developed assembly line
  • Changed industry forever
  • 1 car made every 24 seconds
  • Costs fell, everyone could own car
  • Tried to Americanize his workers
economy in the late 1920s
Economy in the Late 1920s
  • Prosperity seemed infinite
  • “Everyone Out to be Rich”
  • Uneven prosperity – rich got richer, poor stayed poor
  • Personal debt went through the roof
  • Stock Market thought to “Get Rich Quick”
  • Too many goods, too little demand
  • Farmers and workers often lost everything
the market crashes
The Market Crashes
  • Stocks rose above actual value
  • Black Thursday –October 24, 1929
    • Investors sold shares at half price
    • President Hoover said everything was ok
  • Black Tuesday – October 29, 1929
    • 16.4 million shares sold (4 times norm)
    • Total loss = $30 billion
    • 4 million people felt immediate shock
    • Spread to all 120 million people
ripple effect
Ripple Effect
  • Banks recalled loans, no one could pay
  • Bank failures wiped out savings
  • Factories stopped producing
  • Unemployment rose
  • Other countries suffered due to US loss
impact on the world
Impact on the World
  • Countries depended on US for loans
  • US kept import taxes high
  • Countries couldn’t sell goods to US
  • As US economy fell, so did the world’s
causes of the depression
Causes of the Depression
  • Unstable Economy
    • Wealth was unevenly distributed
    • No one was saving money
    • Too many goods, not enough consumers
  • Overspeculation
    • Buying stocks with borrowed money
    • Used these as collateral to buy more stocks
    • No actual money
  • Government Policies
    • Federal Reserve cut interest rates
    • Lowered amount of money in circulation
social effects
Social Effects
  • “Hoovervilles” – poor shanty towns
  • Farmers couldn’t farm
  • Dust Bowl – dust storms that blew soil away
  • Families were strained
  • Discrimination grew
signs of change
Signs of Change
  • 1933 – 21st Amendment – repealed Prohibition
  • Organized crime decreased
  • Empire State Building began construction
hoover s limited strategy
Hoover’s Limited Strategy
  • Built many public works
  • 1930 – Hoover Dam begins construction
  • Hawley-Smoot Tariff – highest import tax ever
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)
    • Gave credit to big companies to expand
  • Hoover’s unpopularity grew
1932 election
1932 Election
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt pledged a “New Deal”
  • Wife, Eleanor, experienced political activist
  • Won by 7 million votes
  • 1st Inaugural Address:

“So first of all let me assert my firmbelief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”

the new deal
The New Deal

Chapter 23

the first hundred days
The First Hundred Days
  • Began “Fireside Chats”
  • Stabilized Banks
    • Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC)
    • Gov could check on all banks anytime
created jobs
Created Jobs
  • Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
  • Gov funded public facilities
  • Civil Works Admin (CWA)
    • Improve roads, parks, airports
    • 4 million employees
  • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
    • 2.5 million young unmarried men
    • Maintained forests, beaches, parks
    • $30 a month, room and board
the second new deal
The Second New Deal
  • First one was good but had problems
  • FDR’s response to critics of 1st
  • New agencies employed 8 million
  • Rural electrification was key
  • Wagner Act – helped Unions: bargaining
  • 1935 – Social Security established
    • Old age pensions
    • Unemployment
    • Aid for disabled
limitations of the new deal
Limitations of the New Deal
  • Women were at disadvantage for jobs
  • Men got jobs first
  • Segregation was reinforced
  • Politicians thought Government was getting too big
  • Added $$$$$$ to the National Debt
the end of the deal
The End of the Deal
  • 1937 – Recession hit again, doubled national debt
  • Labor Unions organized sit-down strikes
  • Tried to get better pay and conditions for workers
  • Arts increased due to federal grants
  • Artists painted murals on public buildings
new deal s legacy
New Deal’s Legacy
  • Public Works and Federal Agencies
    • All designed to help Americans
  • Social Security to help old and disabled
  • Restored hope