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Lessons From the Cockpit:. Rethinking Multidisciplinary Investigative Teams. Lessons From the Cockpit. Donna M. Pence, BS Special Agent - Tennessee Bureau of Investigation-Retired Senior Trainer, Academy of Professional Excellence San Diego State University dpence@projects.sdsu.edu

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lessons from the cockpit

Lessons From the Cockpit:

Rethinking Multidisciplinary Investigative Teams

lessons from the cockpit1
Lessons From the Cockpit
  • Donna M. Pence, BS
  • Special Agent - Tennessee Bureau of Investigation-Retired
  • Senior Trainer, Academy of Professional Excellence
  • San Diego State University
  • dpence@projects.sdsu.edu
  • Charles Wilson, MSSW
  • Senior Director
  • The Sam and Rose Stein Endowed Chair in Child Protection
  • Chadwick Center for Children and Families,
  • Rady Children’s Hospital San Diego, California
  • cwilson@rchsd.org

Wilson & Pence, 2011

spring of 1984
Spring of 1984

“You’re supposed to be helping............ but your making it worse!”

Wilson & Pence, 2011

models of child abuse teams
Models of Child Abuse “Teams”
  • Joint Investigation Models
  • Standing Coordinating/Case Review Teams
  • Teams in Defined Areas/Jurisdictions
  • Co-Located Teams

Wilson & Pence, 2011

why teams
Why Teams?
  • Increases the likelihood of appropriate outcomes
  • Reduces the repetition of interviews* & other investigative tasks
  • Support system for individual team personnel
  • Safety issues
  • Cases less likely to “fall through the cracks”
  • Better case decisions
  • Reduces the likelihood of single individual making key decisions

Wilson & Pence, 2011

what questions need to be answered by the investigation
What Questions Need to Be Answered by the Investigation?
  • WAS THIS CHILD (or others) ABUSED?
  • CAN WE DETERMINE BY WHOM?
  • WHAT MUST WE DO TO PROTECT THIS CHILD OR OTHERS?
  • CAN WE HOLD THE ABUSER ACCOUNTABLE?
  • DO WE HAVE THE EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT OUR CONCLUSIONS?

Wilson & Pence, 2011

what s a cac
What’s a CAC?
  • First – It’s a Team
    • Law Enforcement
    • Child Protection
    • Prosecutor/ Legal
    • Medical
    • Mental Health
    • Victim Advocacy

Wilson & Pence, 2011

definition of a team
Definition of a Team

A group of people who are necessary to accomplish a task that requires the continuous integration of the expertise (along with resources and authority) distributed among them.

Wilson & Pence, 2011

successful teams have
Successful Teams Have:
  • TEAM INDENTITY
  • INTERDEPENDENCE
  • TRUST
  • TASK SKILLS

Wilson & Pence, 2011

to succeed teams must have
To Succeed Teams Must Have:
  • Task Expertise
  • Team members must possess the ability to integrate their different skills, expertise, and roles
  • Team members must be willing to work together in a more complex system

Wilson & Pence, 2011

slide13

Goal: Safety and Protection of Children

Collaboration

Collaboration

The arrows represent information or practice when working collaboratively

Wilson & Pence, 2011

essential components of cac team
Essential Components of CAC Team
  • All 6 Disciplines Represented
    • Law Enforcement
    • Child Protection
    • Prosecutor/ County Counsel
    • Medical
    • Mental health
    • Victim Advocacy
  • All Involved in the Investigation
  • Routinely Share Information
  • Written Agreement-Protocol

Wilson & Pence, 2011

investigative protocol
Investigative Protocol
  • Establishes the basic mode of operation of the Team
  • Gives all Team members a common frame of reference
  • Can be easily modified on a case by case basis

Wilson & Pence, 2011

issues with protocols
Issues With Protocols
  • Are they a fiction?
  • Are they selectively followed?
  • Are they clear, specific, and comprehensive?
  • Are we trained to follow the protocol?
  • How are new Team members introduced to the protocol?

Wilson & Pence, 2011

culture
Culture

“Culture is what everybody knows, that everybody else knows.” Veronica Abney

“What you do and ‘know’ without ever thinking about why you do it or where you learned it.” Donna Pence

Wilson & Pence, 2011

culture is defined by
Culture is Defined By:
  • Shared experiences (often historical)
  • Traditions
  • Values and Belief System
  • The Meaning of Behavior
  • Language
  • Dress
  • Food
  • Common Enemies

Wilson & Pence, 2011

teaming in large regions is hard
Teaming in Large Regions is Hard
  • Sheer size of populations
  • Numbers of jurisdictions
  • Sheer size of area
  • Sheer numbers of CPS, law enforcement, prosecutors and others

Wilson & Pence, 2011

team vs crew
Team vs. Crew
  • Team-known members-trust, interdependent, strong identity, protocol can be flexible based on individuals skills and talents. Trust people
  • Crew-Ad hoc, members may rarely work together-role definition much more important, pre-investigation meeting/communication critical, need to create a team culture that transcends individuals. Trust protocol/systems

Wilson & Pence, 2011

crew embedded in team environment
Crew Embedded in Team Environment
  • Guided By Law, Policy, and Protocol
  • Community Culture
  • Management Team
  • Crew--the Case Working Team--Guided by Policy, Culture, and Checklist

Wilson & Pence, 2011

three tools to guide the team
Three Tools To Guide the Team
  • The Protocol- a document outlining the mission of the child protection team process, outline of basic goals, roles, agreements, and commitments. This document would be signed by all participating stakeholders.
  • Orientation Guide- a guide for all new child abuse detectives, CPS, County Counsel, DA, and hospital staff.
  • New: Checklist Binder(s) Building on the model of flight checklist binders that guide crews from normal to non-normal operational events in simple short focusing on key points of team contact, processes prone to error or conflict, or points were error has dire. Binder can have additional resources needed in the field such a key phone numbers, code numbers, and timelines.

Wilson & Pence, 2011

lessons learned from flight crew checklists
Lessons Learned from Flight Crew Checklists

They fall into two broad categories:

  • Normal Operations
  • Non-Normal Operations

The Checklist Manifesto How To Get Things Right by Atul Gawande.

Wilson & Pence, 2011

checklists are short
Checklists Are Short
  • 5-9 items
  • Don’t cover every step-They focus on the difficult, important but easily overlooked, or those with dire consequences

Wilson & Pence, 2011

checklists fall into two categories
Checklists Fall Into Two Categories
  • Do-Confirm
  • Read Do

Wilson & Pence, 2011

each checklist formatted in similar manner san diego format
Each Checklist Formatted in Similar Manner-San Diego Format
  • Topic:
  • Investigative Phase:
  • Type of Abuse or Neglect:
  • Who is involved?
  • Importance:
    • Checklist (5-9 items)

Wilson & Pence, 2011

san diego cpt checklists
San Diego CPT Checklists
  • Convening the Team
  • Photo documentation of injuries or location where the injuries occurred
  • Severe Physical Abuse with multiple caretakers and unclear perpetrator
  • Interview with Medical Provider: Implications of Medical Findings
  • What information to seek in Minimal Facts Field Interview
  • How to structure the Minimal Facts Field Interview
  • Need for Immediate Trauma Mental Health Assessment and Support
  • Trauma Informed Removal
  • Placing a Hospital Hold
  • Arranging a sexual abuse exam at Rady Children’s
  • Arranging for medical evaluation of physical abuse injuries
  • Collaborating and Assessing Allegations of Child Sexual Macro Case-Multiple victim/Multiple Perpetrator Allegations

Wilson & Pence, 2011

what are the team tasks that lend themselves to 5 9 item checklists in tennessee
What are the team tasks that lend themselves to 5-9 item checklists in Tennessee?

Wilson & Pence, 2011

link from the field to the team meeting
Link from the Field to the Team Meeting
  • Standing Agency Representatives
  • Shared Leadership
  • Technology Supported

Wilson & Pence, 2011

team meetings
Team Meetings
  • WHAT GOOD DOES IT DO TO TALK?
  • HOW WILL THE TEAM BE NOTIFIED OF MEETINGS?
  • WILL THE MEETING ALWAYS BE AT THE SAME LOCATION?
  • HOW OFTEN DO WE MEET?
  • WHO CONVENES THE MEETING?

Wilson & Pence, 2011

case decision making
Case Decision Making:
  • Was this child abused?
  • Can we determine by whom?
  • What must we do to protect this child or others?
  • Can we hold the abused accountable?
  • Do we have the evidence to support our conclusion?
  • What’s wrong with our evidence?*

Wilson & Pence, 2011

slide37

Children need our skills,

knowledge, cooperation

and caring to help them grow.

Let’s do it right!

Wilson & Pence, 2011

slide38

26th Annual San Diego International Conference on Child & Family Maltreatment

www.chadwickcenter.org

  • Conference: January 23-26, 2012
  • Pre & Post-conference Institutes: 21-23 & 27
  • Town and Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, CA

Wilson & Pence, 2011