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Problem Solving Tools

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  1. Problem Solving Tools Prepared by Steven Schafer, September 16, 2009

  2. Generic approach to Problem solving • Problem Solving can be broken up into 6 basic steps: • Problem Definition • Determine Possible Causes • Failure Cause Investigation • Select and Verify Solution • Plan and Implement Permanent Solution • Verify Solution is Effective Prepared by Steven Schafer, September 16, 2009

  3. 1. Problem Definition Before one can start the Problem Solving Process, the problem needs to fully understood. This description should include: • Where the problem occurred • Under what conditions was the problem observed • Extent of the problem (100%, one out of 7, etc.) • Anything else that adds to the knowledge of the problem. The problem has been fully defined once you can no longer come up with additional questions you need answered to understand the Problem. Prepared by Steven Schafer, September 16, 2009

  4. 2. Determine Possible Causes This process consists of listing all the possible causes that could contribute to the problem. Clue generation: • Cause and Effect Diagram / Fish Bone Diagram / Ishikawa Diagram • Flow Chart / Diagram / Arrow Analysis • Run Chart • Histogram • Pictograph / failure concentration diagram • Control Chart • Brainstorming • Gantt Charts • Rings of Influence • Consensus • 5 Why’s / Why-Why diagram • Multi-vari • Component Search • Pair Comparison • Nominal group techniques • Tabular arrangement • Force Field analysis • Affinity diagram • Interrelationship diagraph • Program decision process chart • Matrix • Check list / sheet • Pareto analysis • Ranking • Process Mapping • Scatter Plots • Tree diagrams Prepared by Steven Schafer, September 16, 2009

  5. 3. Failure Cause Investigation The focus of this process is to determine the true Root Cause. If the process that creates the problem is complex and has many parameters / factors that can influence the outcome, then more complex tools , such as, DOE might be needed to arrive at an understanding of what combined factors are causing the problem. Some tools that help arrive at the root cause are: • DOE Tools • Solution Tree / Fault Tree Analysis • Formal experimentation • Study of worker methods • Correlation • Piece-to-Piece variation • Within piece-to-piece analysis • Stream-to-Stream analysis • 5 Why’s / Why-why diagram • Run Charts • Histograms • B vs W (BOB vs WOW, Best Of the Best vs Worst Of the Worst) • Autopsies • What can the parts tell us Prepared by Steven Schafer, September 16, 2009

  6. 4. Select and Verify Solution The focus of this process is to select a solution that will “Kill” the problem, that is eliminate the possibility of the problem from occurring in the future. Verify the measurement system: • MSA • Isoplot • Gage R&R Studies Some tools to verify solutions are: • Single Factor Confirmation • Full Factorial Experiment • Process capability analysis Prepared by Steven Schafer, September 16, 2009

  7. 5. Plan and Implement Permanent Solution The focus of this process is to plan and implement the solution into production. Things to consider in the planning stage are: • Error Proofing • Preventative maintenance • PCP • DFMEA / PFMEA • Operator instructions • Visual aids • Design changes • Standardize Prepared by Steven Schafer, September 16, 2009

  8. 6. Verify Solution is Effective The focus of this process is to ensure that the solution truly eliminates the reappearance of the problem. This is accomplished by using tools that collect and analyze data, such as: • Check Sheets • Pareto analysis • Control charts • Plant returns • FTQ charts Prepared by Steven Schafer, September 16, 2009

  9. Note1: E/F (Expand / Focus our Thinking Note 2: For other column headers see Figure 2.1 on last slide From: The Quality Toolbox, by Nancy R. Tague Prepared by Steven Schafer, September 16, 2009

  10. Note1: E/F (Expand / Focus our Thinking Note 2: For other column headers see Figure 2.1 on last slide From: The Quality Toolbox, by Nancy R. Tague Prepared by Steven Schafer, September 16, 2009

  11. Note1: E/F (Expand / Focus our Thinking Note 2: For other column headers see Figure 2.1 on last slide From: The Quality Toolbox, by Nancy R. Tague Prepared by Steven Schafer, September 16, 2009

  12. From: The Quality Toolbox, by Nancy R. Tague Prepared by Steven Schafer, September 16, 2009