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Problem Solving

Problem Solving. GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills. Terminology of Problem Solving. Seven terms of terminology to be understand are: 1. Purpose What we want to do or what we want to be. Without clear purposes, we cannot think about problems. 2. Situation What a circumstances is.

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Problem Solving

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  1. Problem Solving GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills

  2. Terminology of Problem Solving • Seven terms of terminology to be understand are: 1. Purpose • What we want to do or what we want to be. • Without clear purposes, we cannot think about problems. 2. Situation • What a circumstances is. • Situation is neither good or bad. • We should recognize situations objectively as much as we can. Usually almost all situations are not problems. GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Problem Solving

  3. Terminology of Problem Solving 3. Problem • Problem is some portions of a situation, which cannot realize purposes. • If the purpose is different, the identical situation may be a problem or may not be a problem. 4. Cause • What brings about a problem. • Some problem solvers do not distinguish causes from problems. • Causes are more specific facts, which brings about problems. • Finding specific facts which causes problems is the essential step in Problem GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Problem Solving

  4. Terminology of Problem Solving 5. Solvable Cause • Some portions of causes. • Finding solvable causes is another essential step in Problem Solving. • Extracting solvable causes is a useful step to make Problem Solving efficient. 6. Issue • The opposite expression of a problem. • Some problem solvers do not know what Issue is. • At the worst case, you may mix the problems, which should be negative expressions, and the issues, which should be positive expressions. GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Problem Solving

  5. Terminology of Problem Solving 7. Solution • Specific action to solve a problem, which is equal to a specific action to realize an issue. • Some problem solvers do not break down issues into more specific actions. • Issues are not solutions. • Problem solvers must break down issues into specific action. GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Problem Solving

  6. Types of Problems:A. Degree of Constraint GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Problem Solving

  7. Types of Problems:B. Classes of Problems GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Problem Solving

  8. Types of Solutions • Algorithms Sets of operations that can be applied systematically and exhaustively to generate a solution. Example: Calculate the mean for the following set of scores: 3, 4, 2, 5, 3, 6 Algorithm solution: Sum the scores, divide by n NOTE: algorithms exists only for well defined problems! GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Problem Solving

  9. Types of Solutions-cont. B. Heuristics: Strategies, or rules of thumb, that can be applied to a problem that often help generate a solution. Example: In Black Jack, when do you take another card? Heuristic: Stay at 15 or more. NOTE: Heuristics do not guarantee success! GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Problem Solving

  10. Problem Solving Method ~ Rational Thinking Set the Ideal Situation Identify a current situation Compare the ideal situation and the current situation and identify the problem situation Break down the problem into its causes GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Problem Solving

  11. Rational Thinking Conceive the solution alternatives to the causes Evaluate and choose the reasonable solution alternatives Implement the solutions GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Problem Solving

  12. Problem Solving Method ~System Thinking • System thinking is a more scientific Problem Solving approach than the rational thinking approach. • We set the system, which causes problems and analyze them based on systems of functions. GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Problem Solving

  13. System Thinking GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Problem Solving

  14. System Thinking • In order to realize Purpose, we prepare input and through Function we can get Output. • But Output does not necessarily realize Purpose. • Result of the Function may be different from the Purpose. • This different is created by Outside Cause and Inside Cause. • We cannot solve Outside Cause but we can solve Inside Cause. System Thinking is a very clear and useful method to solve problems. GXEX1406 Thinking and Communication Skills – Week 13 Problem Solving

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