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Problem Solving. A Window on Thinking. Research Methods. Variables of Interest Kinds of Problems Kinds of Subjects Evaluate: Answers for types of errors Time Strategies used by subjects to solve problems A word on Introspection. Solution Paths. Algorithms Heuristics.

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## Problem Solving

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**Problem Solving**A Window on Thinking**Research Methods**• Variables of Interest • Kinds of Problems • Kinds of Subjects • Evaluate: • Answers for types of errors • Time • Strategies used by subjects to solve problems • A word on Introspection**Solution Paths**• Algorithms • Heuristics**Two players take turns picking a number 1-10**• Once chosen, a number cannot be chosen again • Winner is the first player to have three chosen numbers = 15 • If neither player has three chosen numbers = 15, game ends in tie.**“Processing” for differential outputs**L – L = A L – R = B R – L = B R – R = C**L – L = A 1 + 1 = 2**L – R = B 1 + 2 = 3 R – L = B 2 + 1 = 3 R – R = C 2 + 2 = 4**Experts**• Well filled, well organized brain attics • Chunking • e.g., chess • Advanced Schemas • Schema as mental program (‘app’) • Cognitive development (Piaget) • Assimilation • Accommodation**GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING**• GENERAL PRINCIPLES • COMBINE INDIVIDUAL THINKING WITH GROUP EVALUATION • VALUE OF DIVERSE GROUPS • Collective Intelligence • “crowdsourcing” • DESIGN THINKING**The Hidden Side of Thinking**• An Example: IAT • Given two categories into which you sort words or pictures as quickly and accurately as possible • Key measure is reaction time**Gender**MALE FEMALE Jane David Mike Susan Barbara Oscar**Social Function**FAMILYPROFESSION Brother Salary Home Vacation Promotion Overtime**Gender and Social Function**FAMILYPROFESSION FEMALEMALE Jane Salary Mike Susan Promotion Overtime**Gender and Social Function**FAMILYPROFESSION MALEFEMALE Jane Salary Mike Susan Promotion Overtime**Solving Big Problems**http://www.ted.com/talks/jason_pontin_can_technology_solve_our_big_problems.html

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