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French Revolution. The Three Estates. I. The clergy of the Roman Catholic Church form the 1 st Estate II. The Second Estate consist of rich Nobles , who own 20% of Land and pay no Taxes III. The other 98% of People make up the 3 rd Estate They are heavily Taxed and discontented.

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The three estates
The Three Estates

  • I. The clergy of the Roman Catholic Church form the 1st Estate

  • II. The Second Estate consist of rich Nobles , who own 20% of Land and pay no Taxes

  • III. The other 98% of People make up the 3rd Estate They are heavily Taxed and discontented

Problems arise
Problems arise

  • IV. New ideas about the power of the People take hold

  • V. Food Shortages, a harsh winter and government debt cause instability in France

  • VI. Louis XVI finally calls a meeting of the Estates General to deal with the crisis

The third estate
The Third Estate

  • VII. Third Estate delegates in the Estates-General demand more rights

  • VIII. In the first deliberate act of revolution, the Third Estate delegates vote to establish the National Assembly.

  • IX. Peasants overthrow the Bastille on July 14th 1789, and the Revolution begins in earnest

The revolution begins
The Revolution Begins

  • X.A senseless panic called the Great Fear leads to great destruction in the French countryside

  • XI. Women angered by the price of Bread march on Versailles and compel the royal family to move to Paris

End of the monarchy
End of the Monarchy

  • The National Assembly sweeps away the Privileges of the Nobility and Clergy

  • Louis XVI is caught as he tries to flee from France

  • The Legislative assembly is given the power to create laws

  • Fearing the loss of their own positions, European monarchs support Louis XVI, and France declares war on Austria.

  • Louis XVI is imprisoned after a Parisian mob invades the royal palace

Political crisis leads to revolt
Political crisis leads to revolt

  • The Great Fear

    • Inflamed by famine and rumors

    • Peasants fury unleashed on nobles

  • Paris Commune comes to power.

    • Factions compete to gain power.

    • Paris Commune mobilizes neighborhoods

The national assembly acts
 The National Assembly acts

-Special Privilege ends.

  • Nobles vote to end their own privileges.

  • Delegates abolish feudalism

  • Declaration of the Rights of Man

    • Modeled on the American Declaration of Independence.

    • Equal rights for women not granted

  • Women march on Versailles

    • Anger at Marie Antoinette’s extravagant lifestyle

    • Demand that the king return to Paris

  • The national assembly presses onward
    The National Assembly presses onward

    • The Church is placed under state control.

      • Civil Constitution ends papal authority and dissolves convents and monasteries.

      • Angry reaction by bishops, priests, pope, and French peasants.

    • The Constitution of 1791 establishes a new government.

      • Replaces absolute monarch with limited monarchy

      • Reflects enlightenment goals.


    • Robespierre gains control of the Revolutionary Government.

    • Robespierre institutes the Reign of Terror, a time of thousands of arbitrary executions.

    • The Reign of Terror ends with the execution of Robespierre.

    The rise of napoleon
    The Rise of Napoleon

    • The third new constitution gives power to the upper middle class, and the government finds a new general, Napoleon Bonaparte, to lead the army

    • Napoleon wins key battles to save the French Republic

    • Napoleon seizes political control from the Directory

    Napoleon as emperor
    Napoleon as Emperor

    • Napoleon’s successes in battle and diplomacy lead to peace in Europe.

    • Napoleon gains power; voters approve a fourth constitution

    • Napoleon gives France order and stability

    • Napoleonic code establishes a uniform set of laws in France

    • Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of France

    Beginning of the end for napoleon
    Beginning of the End for Napoleon

    • Napoleon tries to expand his empire in the Americas but fails in Saint Domingue

    • The United States buys the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon

    • Napoleon conquers much of Europe, but his navy is defeated in the Battle of Trafalgar

    Napoleon s mistakes
    Napoleon’s Mistakes

    • 1st mistake

    • In a policy known as the Continental system, Napoleon unsuccessfully attempt to cut off trade between Great Britain & Main land Europe

    • 2nd mistake

    • The Peninsular War in Spain inflames Spanish nationalism and weakens France. Lost 300,000 men

    • 3rd mistake

    • The French invasion of Russia fails, with the terrible loss of life.

    The end of napoleon
    The End of Napoleon

    • Austria, Russia, & Prussia unite against a weakened Napoleon

    • Napoleon surrenders and is banished to Elba

    • Napoleon escapes and briefly regains power (100 days) until he is defeated by British and Prussian forces at Waterloo

    Stability in europe
    Stability in Europe

    • Metternich influences European Rulers to restore stability to Europe

    • France is kept intact, and a balance of power is established in Europe

    • Under the Principle of legitimacy, rulers deposed by Napoleon are restored to power

    Peace in europe
    Peace in Europe?

    • The Congress of Vienna make fair settlements and produces a lasting peace

    • A series of alliances, called the Concert of Europe, allows nations to help one another in case of internal revolutions.

    • Nationalism grows, and democratic ideas begin to take hold in European Nations