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Inter-Athletic Council of Officials. New Official’s Basketball Class Module 12 Foul Calling. Foul Calling. At the completion of this Module the student should: Understand what is the different types of fouls are Understand the difference between player and team control fouls

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Inter athletic council of officials

Inter-Athletic Council of Officials

New Official’s Basketball Class

Module 12

Foul Calling

Foul calling
Foul Calling

  • At the completion of this Module the student should:

    • Understand what is the different types of fouls are

    • Understand the difference between player and team control fouls

    • Know what a the implications of a double foul

    • Know where the foul calling area is located

Key terms
Key Terms

  • Airborne Shooter

  • Contact

  • Incidental Contact

  • Verticality

  • Blocking

  • Charging

  • Hand Check

  • Holding

  • Illegal Use of Hands

  • Player-Control

  • Team Control Foul

  • Pushing

  • Screening

  • Intentional Foul

  • Flagrant Foul

  • Shooting Foul

  • Fighting

Foul reporting procedure
Foul Reporting Procedure

  • Call the Foul

    • Give foul called signal

  • Give Preliminary Signal (Required)

    • Example:

      • Hold

      • Push

      • Hand-checking

      • Illegal Use of Hand

      • Player-Control Foul

      • Team Control Foul

Foul reporting procedure1
Foul Reporting Procedure

  • Inform Partners of situation

    • Out of bounds spot

    • Shooting Fouls

    • Bonus

    • Free throw shooter (if necessary)

  • Hustle to the reporting area

    • Completely stop when you get there

    • No walking and talking

Foul reporting procedure2
Foul Reporting Procedure

  • Report with strong voice

    • Color

    • Number


  • Give signal you reported at the spot of the foul

  • Status of the ball

    • Free throws

    • Throw-in spot

Foul reporting area
Foul Reporting Area








Preliminary Signal

Stop the clock

What are we doing next?

(Appropriate Signal)

Trail calls foul half court
Trail calls Foul (Half court)



















Lead calls foul half court
Lead Calls Foul (Half court)



















Non calling official
Non-calling official

  • When foul is called

    • Freeze your eyes

    • Move to throw-in spot or FT lane


All officials
All officials

  • Take your time

  • Get the administration of foul right

  • Dead ball officiating is sometimes more important than live ball officiating

  • Hustle to get ball back in play

  • Make sure all officials are in position and ready to go before putting ball back in play

Foul calling review
Foul Calling Review

  • Is severe contact allowed by the rules?

  • Can a defender move after establishing Legal Guarding Position?

  • When do you call a flagrant foul?

  • What is considered fighting?

  • How many free throws do you award during an intentional foul?

  • Who do you call a player control foul on?

  • When do you file a Special Report?


  • Rule 10-6

  • Players shall not:

    • Hold, Push, charge, trip or impede progress of an opponent by extending arm(s), shoulder(s), hip(s) or knee(s) or by bending his/her body into other than normal position; nor use any rough tactics

Legal guarding position1
Legal Guarding Position

Rule 4-23

  • Guarding is an act to place the body in the path of an offensive opponent.

  • Obtaining LGP

    • Player must have both feet on the floor

    • Front of the player’s torso must be facing the opponent

Legal guarding position2
Legal Guarding Position

  • Maintaining LGP

    • Player may have one or both feet on the playing court or be airborne provided they have inbound status.

    • Does not have to face opponent

    • Player may move laterally or obliquely to maintain position, provided they are not moving towards opponent

    • Player may raise hands or jump within his/her vertical plane

    • Player may turn or duck to absorb the shock or imminent contact

Legal guarding position3
Legal Guarding Position

  • Time and distance is never a factor before contact

  • If opponent with the ball is airborne, the player must have maintained LGP before opponent left the floor

Airborne shooter1
Airborne Shooter

  • Definition

    • Player that has released the ball on a try for goal

    • Player that has tapped the ball

    • Airborne shooter is considered in the act of shooting

    • Considered a shooter until player has returned to the floor

Shooting foul1
Shooting Foul

  • Starts with contact during the habitual motion to the basket

  • Contact applies on a try or tap for goal

  • Shooting player is allowed to finish motion to the basket

  • Being on or off the floor are not factors

Player control

  • Any common foul involving the ball carrier

  • Airborne shooter is still considered in player control even if ball is not in his/her hands

Incidental contact1
Incidental Contact

  • Rule 4-27

  • Incidental Contact is contact with an opponent which is permitted and which does not constitute a foul

  • 10 Players moving rapidly there is bound to be contact

Incidental contact2
Incidental Contact

  • Contact which may result when opponents are in equally favorable positions to perform normal defensive or offensive movements, should not be considered illegal, even though contact may be severe

  • Similarly, contact which does not hinder the opponent from normal defensive or offensive movement, should be considered incidental.


  • Point of Emphasis 2010-2011

  • Applies to a legal position

  • Legal Guarding Position must be obtained

  • Defender may rise or jump vertically

  • Offensive player is responsible for clearing out or causing contact with a vertical player

  • Defender cannot “belly up” or use lower body on offensive player

  • Player with the ball is not given special protection over the defender


  • Not being in Legal Guarding Position

  • Contact mostly with the torso

  • Often called for illegal screens

Pushing or charging1
Pushing or Charging

  • Moving into an opponent

  • Using arms to impede an opponent

Hand checking1
Hand Checking

  • Defending may not use arm(s) to move, direct, stop or impede and opponent with the ball

  • Two hands on an opponent is by rule a foul

  • Not called enough or consistently

Hand checking2
Hand Checking

  • Judgment Guideline:

    • RSBQ

      • Rhythm

      • Speed

      • Balance

      • Quickness

  • If any of these are changed “Call the foul, players will adjust”


  • Players my not use arms to hold an opponent to impede their progress

Illegal use of hands1
Illegal Use of Hands

  • Players may not strike, slap or grab the hands, arms or jersey of an opponent

  • “Reaching in” is not a foul

Team control
Team Control

  • Any common foul committed by the any player of the team in control of the ball

  • Applies mostly on screens, post play or interrupted dribbles

  • Does not applyon try for goals, taps, rebounding or free-throws

  • New Rule added for throw-In when the ball is at the disposal of the thrower (4-12-2d)

Screening basics
Screening Basics

  • Two types of screens

    • In the field of vision

    • Blind

  • Screener can face any direction

  • Time and distance are relevant

  • “Moving screen” is not a foul

Screening basics1
Screening Basics

  • Screener must be stationary, except when both (screener and screened player) are moving in the same path and direction

  • Screener must stay in his/her vertical plane with a stance shoulder width apart

Displacement on screens
Displacement on Screens

Legal Screen

Illegal Screen

Blind screens
Blind Screens

  • Must allow a step of the screened player


To obtain legal rebounding position, players my not:

  • Displace, charge, or push and opponent

  • Extend shoulders, hips, knees or extend the arms or elbows fully or position other than vertically

  • Bend in an abnormal position to hold or displace an opponent

  • Violate the principles of verticality

Rebounding action
Rebounding Action

  • Everyone has a right to their position on the floor

  • Boxing out

    • Holding your position is allowed

    • Does not include “backing out” or pushing

  • Verticality also applies to rebounding plays

Post play1
Post Play

  • Lead Official is mostly responsible for post players

  • Primary coverage is largely in the post

  • Identify who these players are early

  • Each player has right to position on the floor

  • Offense does not get special consideration

Post play2
Post Play

  • Point of Emphasis 2011-2012:

    • When a player dislodges an opponent from an established position by pushing or “backing in” is a foul

    • When a player uses hands, forearms or elbows to prevent an opponent from maintaining a legal position, it is a foul

Do not only penalize the defense for rough action

Double fouls
Double Fouls

  • Fouls committed by opponent against each other at approximately the same time

  • Can be personal or technical

Simultaneous foul
Simultaneous Foul

  • A Personal or Technical Foul by opponents is a situation which there is a foul by both teams which occur approximately at the same time, but are not committed by opponents against each other

Point of interruption1
Point of Interruption

  • Rule 4-36-1

  • Applies to

    • Double Personal Fouls

    • Double Technical Fouls

    • Simultaneous Fouls

  • Also applies to accidental whistles, an interrupted game or correctable errors

Multiple foul1
Multiple Foul

  • A foul where two or more teammates commit personal fouls against the same opponent at approximately the same time.

  • Pick one or the other player

  • Do not call this!!!!!!

False fouls
False Fouls

  • False Double Foul

    • Rule 4-19-9

  • False multiple Fouls

    • Rule 4-19-12

  • These are “technical” definitions, not something you actually call, but is a result of things called

Intentional foul1
Intentional Foul

  • A personal or technical foul which neutralizes an opponent’s obvious advantageous position

  • Contact away from the ball

  • Not making a legitimate attempt to play the ball

Intentional foul2
Intentional Foul

  • May or may not be predetermined

  • Are not solely based on severity of contact

  • Should be called if excessive contact is caused by an opponent

  • Contact with the thrower-in

    • New Rule Clarification

    • Foul goes to offender

Intentional foul3
Intentional Foul


  • Award two shots and the ball on most intentional fouls

  • Award three shots and the ball on missed three point attempts

  • Basket goes in during a shot, always award 2 (or 3) points and the ball nearest the spot of the foul

  • Always the offended player shoots the free throws

    • Exception: Injury to offended player

Flagrant foul
Flagrant Foul

  • Personal or Technical foul that is considered violent or savage in nature

  • Non-contact technical foul which displays unacceptable in nature

  • May or may not be committed on purpose

Flagrant foul1
Flagrant Foul

  • If a personal foul, a flagrant foul involves but is not limited to a violent contact such as:

    • Striking

    • Kicking

    • Kneeing

  • If Technical, it involves dead ball contact or non-contact which is considered extreme or persistent, vulgar or abusive contact

  • Technical foul
    Technical Foul

    • A foul by a non-player

    • A non-contact foul by a player

    • An intentional or flagrant contact foul while the ball is dead (except airborne shooter)

    Technical foul1
    Technical Foul

    • Team Technical (Rule 10-1)

      • Charged to team and not coach or player

        • Failing to supply the scorer with the proper information at the 10 minute mark

        • Using a television monitor or computer as a replay device for coaching purposes/use of megaphone or electronic transmission device (cell phone)

        • Failure to occupy team bench area

        • Allowing the game to develop into an actionless contest (5 items specifically)

    Technical foul2
    Technical Foul

    • Team Technical (Rule 10-1)

      • Charged to team and not coach or player

        • More than 5 players on the court

        • Request an excess time-out

        • Commit and unsporting foul

        • Fail to have all players return to the court at the same time following a time-out or intermission

        • Allow players to lock arms or grasp a teammate(s) in an effort to restrict the movement of an opponent

    Technical foul3
    Technical Foul

    • Substitute Technical (Rule 10-2-1)

      • A substitute shall not enter the court:

        • Without reporting to the scorer

        • Without being beckoned by an official, except between quarters

    Technical foul4
    Technical Foul

    • Player Technical

      • A player shall not:

        • Participate after changing their number without reporting it to the scorer or official

        • Purposely and/or deceitfully delay returning after legally being out of bounds

        • Grasp either basket during the official’s jurisdiction

          • Before the game

          • Halftime

        • Illegally contact the basket or ring (explain later in class)

        • Delaying the game (4 items)

    Technical foul5
    Technical Foul

    • Player Technical

      • A player shall not:

        • Commit and unsporting foul (included and not limited to)

          • Disrespectfully addressing/contacting an official or gesture that incites resentment

          • Using profane and inappropriate language or obscene gestures

          • Baiting and taunting an opponent

          • Purposely obstructing an opponent’s vision by waving or placing hand(s) near his/her eyes

          • Climbing on or lifting a teammate to secure greater height

          • Using tobacco or smokeless tobacco

          • Removing the jersey and/or pants/skirt within the visual confines of the playing area

    Technical foul6
    Technical Foul

    • Player Technical

      • A player shall not:

        • Intentionally or flagrantly contact an opponent when the ball is dead and such contact is not a personal foul

        • Fighting


        • Goaltending during a free throw

        • Reach through the throw-in boundary-line plane and touch or dislodge ball

    Technical foul7
    Technical Foul

    • Bench Technical

      • Head coach is responsible for the conduct of his/her bench’s behavior which includes:

        • Assistant coaches

        • Substitutes

        • Disqualified team members

        • Trainers

        • Scorekeepers

        • Anyone else on the team bench

    Technical foul8
    Technical Foul

    • Bench Technical

      • Head coach is responsible for the conduct of his/her bench’s behavior which includes:

        • Commit an unsporting foul, included but not limited to

          • Most acts listed under Player Technical section

          • Objecting to an official’s decision by rising from the bench or using gestures

          • Inciting undesired crowd reactions

          • Fighting

          • Removing jersey and/or pants/skirts within the confines of the playing area

    Technical foul9
    Technical Foul

    • Bench Technical

      • Head coach is responsible for the conduct of his/her bench’s behavior which includes:

        • Enter the court unless by permission of an official to attend to an injured player

        • Use tobacco or smokeless tobacco

    Technical foul10
    Technical Foul

    • Bench Technical

      • Head coach is responsible for the conduct of his/her bench’s behavior which includes:

        • Stand a the team bench while the clock is running or stopped and must remain seated except:

          • The head coach

          • When a team member is reporting to the scorer’s table

          • During a charged Timeout or intermission between quarters and extra periods

          • Spontaneously reacting to outstanding play by team member or acknowledge a replaced player(s) but must immediately return to his/her seat

    Technical foul11
    Technical Foul

    • Bench Technical

      Results in two types of foul classifications:

      • Direct technical

        • charged to the head coach because of his/her actions or permitting a player to participate after they have been disqualified

      • An Indirect Technical

        • charged to the head coach as a result of a bench technical being assessed to bench personnel or a technical being assessed to a team member for dunking or grasping the ring during pre-game warm-ups

    Technical foul12
    Technical Foul

    • Head coach can be disqualified or ejected with Combination of:

      • 3 Technical Fouls (1 Direct and 2 Indirect/3 Indirect)

      • 2 Technical Fouls

      • 1 Flagrant Technical Foul

    • Player can be ejected by being called for:

      • 2 Technical Fouls

      • 1 Flagrant Technical Foul

      • 1 Flagrant Foul

      • 5 Personal fouls is a disqualification

        • Technical and common fouls go to the 5 fouls for disqualification

    Technical foul13
    Technical Foul


    • All Technical Fouls give 2 shots and the ball to the offended team.

    • Point of Interruptionon all Double Technical Fouls


    • Fighting is a flagrant act when the ball is live or dead

    • Attempting to strike, punch or kick by using fist, hands, arms, legs or feet with or without contact

    • Attempting to instigate a fight by committing an unsporting act that causes a person to retaliate by fighting

    • Ejection is required for fighting

    Special reports
    Special Reports

    • An IHSA Special Report should be filed:

      • When any ejected player, coach or fan

      • 24 hours after the contest

      • Online form on your personal IHSA Webpage

      • Be specific in report

      • Not to be used for a player that fouls out of game

      • Between the IHSA and the offended party what penalty will ultimately be

      • Once the decision is made, it cannot be taken back!!!

      • Can also be used for non ejection events

    Foul calling review1
    Foul Calling Review

    • Is severe contact allowed by the rules?

    • Can a defender move after establishing Legal Guarding Position?

    • When do you call a flagrant foul?

    • What is considered fighting?

    • How many free throws do you award during an intentional foul?

    • Who do you call a player control foul on?

    • When do you file a Special Report?

    Module 12
    Module 12


    New Officials Basketball Class

    Module 12

    Foul Calling