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Modulo-N Counters. According to how they handle input transitions Synchronous Asynchronous. General Modulo-N asynchronous Counter. Number of flip-flops? Number of states? Why the name “Modulo” Which state does the logic detect?. Asynchronous BCD counter. Which is the last stable output?.

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modulo n counters
Modulo-N Counters
  • According to how they handle input transitions
    • Synchronous
    • Asynchronous
general modulo n asynchronous counter
General Modulo-N asynchronous Counter
  • Number of flip-flops?
  • Number of states?
      • Why the name “Modulo”
  • Which state does the logic detect?
asynchronous bcd counter
Asynchronous BCD counter
  • Which is the last stable output?
asynchronous bcd counter1
Asynchronous BCD counter
  • State diagram
    • Counter passes through intermediate transient states (small circles) between the steady states (the large circles)
  • Which is the last unstable output and why?
constructing asynchronous modulo n counters from binary
Constructing asynchronous Modulo-N counters from binary
  • Asynchronously resetting modulo-13 counter
  • What are the problems with asynchronous design?
synchronous modulo 13 counter
Synchronous Modulo-13 counter
  • Which state should the reset logic of a synchronous Modulo-N counter sense?
shift registers as counters
Shift registers as counters
  • Number of storage elements (FFs)?
  • Number of states?
  • Bit patterns?
  • Where is a ring counter useful?
ring counter
Ring counter
  • Schematic
  • Transition diagram
ring counter equivalent
Ring counter equivalent
  • Can use a small counter plus a decoder
  • Why?
ring counter equivalent1
Ring counter equivalent
  • Is the clear synchronous or asynchronous?
  • What is the drawback of this circuit?
twisted ring counter
Twisted Ring counter
  • AKA Johnson Counter
  • How does it work?
  • Number of unique states?
  • State sequence?
  • Advantages over ring counter?
twisted ring counter1
Twisted Ring counter
  • Number of unique states?
    • 2n (n is # of flip-flops)
  • Advantages over ring counter?
    • Half the number of flip-flops
twisted ring counter example1
Twisted Ring counter example
  • Desired timing diagram
  • Using ring counter – 2n states = 16; n =8
  • Choose 8-bit shift register SN74164 and an inverter for the twist
  • Figure out the decoding logic for the functions
twisted ring counter example3
Twisted Ring counter example
  • Logic diagram of the circuit
twisted ring counter example4
Twisted Ring counter example
  • Timing diagram of the circuit
alternative implementations
Alternative implementations
  • 1) Using a ring counter
  • 2) Using a straight binary counter
  • What are advantages and disadvantages of each?
    • Twisted vs. non-twisted:
      • Half the Flip-Flops
      • Decode logic
    • Straight binary vs. ring
      • Exponentially fewer flip-flops for the straight counter
      • More logic
fractional rate multiplier
Fractional rate multiplier
  • Clock drives an n-bit binary counter with outputs X1…Xn
  • Produce non-overlap pulse trains P1…Pn
fractional rate multiplier1
Fractional rate multiplier
  • The separation between the output pulses obtained by the fractional multiplier will vary
  • They are synchronized with the input clock
fractional rate multiplier2
Fractional rate multiplier
  • Why don’t Pi overlap?
    • What is the product Pi•Pj ?
  • How many pulses does each Pi generate per 2n clocks?
    • X1 is on ½ of the time
    • X2 is on ¼ of the time