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Landscape Architecture (EAPS4303) Lecturer 7 Plants & Hardscapes: PowerPoint Presentation
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Landscape Architecture (EAPS4303) Lecturer 7 Plants & Hardscapes:

Landscape Architecture (EAPS4303) Lecturer 7 Plants & Hardscapes:

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Landscape Architecture (EAPS4303) Lecturer 7 Plants & Hardscapes:

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  1. University of Palestine Faculty of Applied Engineering & Urban Planning Dept. of Architecture, Interior Design & Planning Landscape Architecture (EAPS4303) Lecturer 7 Plants & Hardscapes: Plant Selection, Plant Features, Resources, Harscape Material Use & Construction. Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf Prepared by Dr. Hazem Abu-Orf, 26.10.2008

  2. Objectives • Learn the criteria affecting plant selection • Understand general plant characteristics • Be familiar with useful resources in plant selection • Be familiar with hardscape material uses & construction

  3. Plant Material & SelectionImportance • The design has to be not only visually pleasing but also hardy & durable: functional plan; visually appealing; balanced & useful • If a plant selection is poor, the design will ultimately be poor: the placement of a shade plant in a full sunny area (as with Accuba) • Obviously, plant selection will vary depending on location. Accuba

  4. Plant Material & Selection • Few guidelines that simplify a choice towards success: 1. Availability Regional Plants Limiting the plants to those that can be easily found in the area Local, Reputable Nurseries Familiar with regional plants, their availability, costs by compiling lists & catalogues Developing a Plant Palette Consider creating a plant palette of the most adapted plants in your area (Mediterranean Climate): help limiting the number of plants & simplify your choice

  5. Plant Material &Selection 2 Hardiness Plants not adopted to the climate grow slowly not surviving hot summer or cold winter (Horticulture) Hardiness zones are areas of average annual minimum temperature assigned throughout the country Zones will define where plants will grow based on their cold hardiness that is often the factor limiting where the plants can grow year after year. Each zone contains a range of 10 degrees: zone 2 (50-40), Zone 3 (40 and -30). Plants are assigned a range of zones in which they are adopted to grow based on these minimums. Heat zones are based on the average number of days over 86 degrees Fahrenheit, considered as the threshold beyond which plants start to suffer. USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map Plants Heat- Zone Map

  6. Plant Material &Selection 2 Hardiness Microclimate: are areas or pockets that are warmer or cooler than predominant growing conditions due to urbanization, changes in topography, or due to surrounding trees. Noticeable in areas that are partially enclosed by walls, protected from cold, hard wind that that can dry out plants and increases the options of a winter damage. A: Buildings protect a planting area from harsh wind & provide exposure to heat extreme B: The dogwood tree is protected at the corner and has grown about 20 feet while dogwoods around the corner in full sun grew little and eventually fail. A B

  7. Plant Material &Selection 3 Cultural Requirements refers to growing conditions required for optimal growth, including the requirements of exposure & moisture. • Exposure: refers to the location of a plant in terms of light, wind, salt, city conditions & durability Light: sun-tolerant & shade-tolerant plants or shade plants burn in full sun, sun plants in shade will grow poorly. Wind: windy conditions ruins some plants by physically damaging foliage & branches City conditions: refers to ozone negative impact like paving & walls raising the temperature around the plants Light effect City conditions

  8. Plant Material &Selection • 3 Cultural Requirements/ Exposure Durability: knowing which plants can handle rough exposure such as pets & children. Salt: Coastal regions have the limitation of exposure to salt water, either to the roots or blown into foliage: as a result plants have to be salt-tolerant to survive. B. Moisture: Refers to predominantly wet or dry conditions choosing plants adopting to either extreme: wet causes lack of soil oxygen, dry can stunt growth & weaken tolerance & health Wet conditions -Heavy Soil • High water table • Areas near downspouts Dry conditions: • Sandy soils • None irrigated • Arid climates Delicate plants that have stems & leaves break easily unless some protection is provided Salt-tolerant

  9. Plant Material &Selection Soil conditions should be noted before a plant selection B Moisture Soil: the main components considered are pH, structure, texture & fertility. 4. Wild Life Plants are used to attract or repel wildlife: like birds or butterflies. Birds: valued of their unique flying habits that are attracted to flowers to feed on nectar, in particular those are red (orange-red flow on trumpet creeper vine) or red flowers on a bottlebrush shrub. Butterflies: a great addition to any landscape along a pathway where they flutter up when people approach using food sources to attract. Trumpet creeper Butterfly bush

  10. Plant Characteristics 1.Thorns & Spines: Plants are armed with sharp pointed stems or leaves, i.e. cactus, referred to as ‘barrier plants’. Such plants are used to repel people/animals, to direct traffic, or keep traffic out of sensitive areas. Thorn plants Spines

  11. Plant Characteristics Paperbark Maple 2. Branching Exfoliating trunks exposing a rich texture Msclewood Chines. Elm Stwartia Shagbark Hickory

  12. Plant Characteristics 2 Branching Most unique plant feature is the contorted, or corkscrew, effect of branches that are twisted and curled. Hardy Orange Flying Dragon Corkscrew willow Harry Lauder’s Walking Stick

  13. Plant Characteristics Weeping Pine 2 Branching Weeping form: have less structural support than no weeping varieties and hang gracefully from main limbs of the tree 3 Fragrance Another dimension to the landscape in addition to visual. Fragrance typically emanates from flower filling the entire garden: Jasmine, Tea Olive, Gardenia & Honeysuckle. Placing fragrance next to an entertainment area or entrance where they would be most noticeable. Weeping Willow Tea Olive

  14. Plant Characteristics 4 Plant Size & Quality Landscape designer should be aware of the size of plants to be installed & their quality. Large plants: More expansive & fill in the intended design quicker.

  15. Hardscapes & Other Materials • Hardscapes is used to build walks, driveways, walls, decks, and so on. Other materials include: drainage, mulch & lighting. • Concrete • expansive form of paving, • very effective at supporting traffic safety, • 4 inch thick concrete is used for the side walk, patio & driveway • Ways to break up the large expanse of concrete are by dividing it with rows of pavers or stones, or the use of alternate materials Driveways are often very large, visually dominant feature of the landscape

  16. Hardscapes & Other Materials • Concrete • Different finishes of a driveway by, for instance, paving it appealing to color and texture, but more expansive. • Contraction Joints: Jointing lines are seen as grooves running perpendicular across sidewalks Contraction joints are 3/8 inch deep groves that help control cracking. Jointing creates a weak line in the concrete where cracking would probably occur.

  17. Hardscapes & Other Materials • Concrete • Exposed Aggregate: has pea gravel embedded into the surface adding a textural element that is visual & physical • A: is warmed with an addition of tan coloring and having deep contraction lines that help control cracking and visually appealing. • B: Close-up of exposed aggregate A B

  18. Hardscapes & Other Materials • Concrete • Colored Concrete: has a color additive to concrete before it is poured • Warming the concrete with a slight-tan color adds an attractive earth-tone appeal • Colored and stamped into patterns: herringbone pavers pattern (brick paving effect) • Driveway basket weave pattern • Entrance stamped into flagstone pattern

  19. Hardscapes & Other Materials 2. Stone & Pavers • Expansive to install than concrete but more decorative & functional • Stone: is used in the form of a flagstone that is a sheet-like stone comes in various colors, shapes & Sizes (A) • Flagstone is used as informal walkway because the stones are of irregular variety • Cut stone/blue stone: is shaped or cut into various rectangular shapes that are more consistent in shape & size (B) • Cut stone has a more formal appeal than flagstones • Pavers, or bricks, can be used in conjunction with concrete providing an effective way to have a visually interesting walk (D). • Stone is large & flat and can be irregular or square shaped (c). A B C D

  20. Hardscapes & Other Materials 2. Stone & Pavers • Stone tiles: are concrete paving modules that are colored & textured to stimulate a natural appearance. Much like cut stone, seems fit tightly and there are numerous texture, colors & patterns to choose from. • Pavers: are like bricks made of concrete or clay coming in various colors & shapes • Pavers are used in Patios, sidewalks, and driveways. • Shapes of pavers can be rectangular, square, or interlocking. • Pattern of pavers are: 1 Running bond 2 Herringbone 3 Basket weave 4 Interlocking 5 Fan