Asia – China & Japan Mr. Williamson Somerville High School
Directions • Using p. 108-112 in the text, complete the guided notes provided to you and your partner • When complete, review for accuracy with your partner, ask any questions you may have • Then, utilize your notes to create the following chart and submit before the end of the period.
Directions • Now that we have covered the reasons for the dynastic cycle, compose a 1 paragraph reflection response on the following question: • Of the problems with the “Old Dynasty”, select the one issue that you feel has the biggest effect in a dynasty’s downfall and the emergence of a new regime. Provide a minimum of 2 examples for your conclusion. • 1 per group, discuss with your teammate. You have 10 minutes to write and we will share as a class if time permits. This will be submitted. Good luck!
Directions • Using p. 509-513 in the text, complete the guided notes provided to you and your partner • When complete, review for accuracy with your partner, ask any questions you may have
Directions • Lastly, utilize your notes to create a political cartoon in the space provided on your note sheet. The subject/topic of your cartoon should be: • FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE MING/QING DYNASTY
China & Western Influences • Core Belief – Chinese Rulers wanted isolationism • Limited trade (Chinese tea to Britain) is profitable • British unhappy with imbalance of trade (export vs. import) • Solution: Opium • Addictive drug banned in China but continually sold by British • Chinese React: destroy British opium at port of Guangzhou • Britain responds: attack/force Chinese to sign the Treaty of Nanjing • Treaty Consequences • First UNEQUAL treaty • Opened 5 more ports for trade, gave extraterritoriality (British citizens subject only to British laws in doing business in China)
China & Western Influences • Some Chinese believe Qing Dynasty lost Mandate, leads to a series of rebellions • Taiping Rebellion – Led by peasants, goal was to create a “Heavenly Kingdom of Peace”, no poverty • Captured large territories but fell to Qing/French/British armies • Significant cost: ~20 million dead • China unable to reform • Weak military, resistance to change from traditional scholars/officials • Western powers carve out “Spheres of Influence” (region which a foreign nation controls trade/investment)
China & Western Influences • Boxer Rebellion • Movement to restore China’s glory, led by a group called the “Harmonious Fists” or Boxers (peasants/lower class workers) • Foreign armies capture Beijing/suppress movement • Qing humiliated/face a heavy fine from British, responds • New national army, primary/secondary schools, provincial assemblies • Sun Yat-sen: Calls for overthrow of the Qing • Based his ideology on: nationalism, democracy, “people’s livelihood” • Revolutionary ideas take root w/intellectuals & military academies • Jan. 1912 - Declare a republic, new president Yuan Shikai forces Qing emperor to leave throne
China & Western Influences • Pro/Con Debate Prep Challenge • Using your notes, handouts and brainstorming ideas between you and your partners, come up with a “T” chart with the PRO/CON on ISOLATIONISM in China • Pro – Why is isolationism a positive movement for China? • Con – Why is isolationism a negative for China? • For each side, come up with a minimum of 6-8 reasons for each side. This will be used during our debate. Remember, your perspective is of a Chinese citizen.
China & Western Influences • Debate Directions • Find your partner/partners from yesterday’s debate prep • Make sure you have your T Chart/Notes from yesterday’s activity • You will be assigned a specific perspective (Pro/Con Western Influences in China) and given 5 minutes to prepare with your group. • We will then have a series of small group debates (4-5 minutes) on this issue. • You will be evaluated on the points you make and the frequency of your arguments. • Remember, attack the issue, not the person • Everyone must participate. • Good Luck!
The Evolution of China • Chiang Kai Shek leads the Chinese Nationalists, known as the Guomindang, clashes with a new party, Communist Party of China • Marks the start of the CHINESE CIVIL WAR: Communists v. Nationalists • Mao Zedong, communist leader, seeks a safe placeto regroup beyond the Nationalist control • Lead a 6k mile trek through China known as the LONG MARCH
The Evolution of China • Guomindang forces outnumber Mao’s Communists • However, they have the support of the peasants (vast majority of population) • Communists promise to return land to peasants if victorious • 1949 – Nationalists driven from China, Mao assumes power, forms the People’s Republic of China • Seeks to rebuild China, 5-Year plans for industrial development/output • Improves economy/reduces poverty/increases literacy rates/public health • However, communists eliminated their “enemies of the state” • Great Leap Forward – Plan to increase industry/agricultural #’s • Created thousands of collective farms to produce food/small industrial output • Outcome: Disaster – poor weather/neglect led to sharp drops in production/famine ensues
The Evolution of China • Cultural Revolution – Mao’s attempt to regain power/prestige • Rid society of old ways, emphasize a society of peasants/physical labor • Wanted to eliminate intellectuals who he feared wanted to end communism • Mao’s Death – 1976, China ends isolation, Deng Xiaoping becomes China’s leader • Reform Plan: Four Modernizations – Agriculture, Industry, Science/Tech, National Defense • Tiananmen Square Incident – inspired by new economic freedoms, students begin to demand political freedoms • Spring 1989 – Pro-democratic protesters occupy Beijing’s Tiananmen Square • Chinese leaders become inpatient, respond with force, killing ~ 200-300 people
The Evolution of China • Exit Ticket Review • 1. What did the students protest for? What were they saying to the government? • 2. What was the Chinese government’s reaction to this event? Be specific and name at least 3. • 3. What was the rest of the world’s reaction to this event?
Early Japan • Clans – groups based on extended family develop/rule many villages in Japan • Worshipped nature spirits, kami who they believe were their ancestors • Beliefs in kami evolved into the religion of Shinto (“way of kami”) • Strong beliefs in nature: sun, trees, rocks, animals • Shrines/ceremonies to ask for blessings – located in natural settings • Torii – marks the entrance to each shrine
Early Japan • Most revered Kami – Amaterasu, the sun goddess • Japan’s 1st Emperor – grandson of the sun goddess, belonged to the powerful Yamamato clan • Lived on the Yamato plain – rich farming region on island of Honshu • Yamamato chiefs called themselves the emperors of Japan even though they did not entirely control Japan • Claimed their rule was through God or “divinity”
Medieval Japan • 1100s – Japan’s central government is weak, local clans fighting for power/land • For protection, clans hired armies of samurai or trained professional warriors • Samurais follow strict code of ethics – Bushido or “way of the warrior” • Required courage, honor, loyalty • Pursued activities requiring focus such as poetry, etc. • Many adopt Zen Buddhism, stressed discipline through meditation • If your disobey, expected to commit seppuku, suicide by disembowelment
Medieval Japan • Japan emperor forced to name the victorious clan leader SHOGUN or “General”, supreme military leader • Tokugama Ieyasu is named Shogun in 1603 • Establishes capital at Edo (present day Tokyo) • Agricultural production/cities and economic activity increased • New Roads – Five Highways linked major towns/cities • Social Structure: Daimyo – powerful warlords with large states
Medieval Japan • Tokugawa Shogunate’s Foreign Relations • Europeans arrive in 1543, welcomed at first with new ideas, products, technologies • Boosts Japan’s economy, but Christian ministries influence Japanese society • Shoguns concerned about spread of Christianity, began to attack missionaries • Begin ISOLATION. 1650 – All ports shut except for the Dutch • Japan’s cities become centers of culture • Colorful woodblock prints, Ukiyo-e, showing scenes of city life/landscapes • Haiku poetry, 3 lines with 17 syllables each (deal with nature/harmony) • Noh Drama – slow moving stories through use of masks, dance, music • Kabuki – more action, plot/humor, interacted with audiences