educational technology learning theory n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Educational Technology Learning Theory PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Educational Technology Learning Theory

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 86

Educational Technology Learning Theory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 129 Views
  • Uploaded on

Educational Technology Learning Theory. Kim Peacock, M.Ed. Learning Theory + . Social theory Communication theory Media studies Technology theories Neuroscience Etc…. Epistimology (aka How Can We Know). Empiricism (experience)

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Educational Technology Learning Theory' - malha


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
learning theory
Learning Theory +
  • Social theory
  • Communication theory
  • Media studies
  • Technology theories
  • Neuroscience
  • Etc…
epistimology aka how can we know
Epistimology(aka How Can We Know)
  • Empiricism (experience)
    • Knowledge comes from sensory input + experiences that get meshed together into complex associations.
    • Empirical truths (things are proven to be true).
    • Learning comes in controlling the environment
epistimology aka how can we know1
Epistimology(aka How Can We Know)
  • Rationalism (reason)
    • Knowledge is already in the mind. Learning and comes from reflection on what learners know combined + what they observe (aka reasoning).
    • A priori truths (things are just true based on reason)
    • Learning comes in making connections with prior knowledge.
three main theoretical perspectives
Three Main Theoretical Perspectives
  • Behaviourism
  • Cognitivism
    • Cognitive Load Theory
  • Constructivism
a fourth perspective
A Fourth Perspective ???
  • Connectivism ???
  • Others...
behaviourism
Behaviourism
  • Key theorists: Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, Skinner
  • The mind is a black box.
  • Learning is an expected response to a given stimulus; we can’t see what goes on in the black box.
the motto of the behaviourist
The Motto of the Behaviourist
  • Practice Makes Perfect!
behaviourism key ideas
Behaviourism – Key Ideas
  • Stimulus-response (repetition)
  • Operant conditioning (reinforcement)
  • Punishment
  • Consequences
  • Modelling
  • Shaping
  • Cuing
  • Drill and practice
behaviourism instructivism
Behaviourism: Instructivism
  • Aka – Direct instruction
  • Aka - Teacher-directed
  • Primary mode: Lecture
behaviourist educational practices
Behaviourist Educational Practices
  • Learning objectives / curriculum
  • Direct instruction
  • Behaviour analysis
  • Classroom management techniques
  • Choice
  • Rewards
behaviourist technologies2
Behaviourist Technologies
  • Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI)
  • Computer AssistedAssessment (CAA)
behaviourist technologies4
Behaviourist Technologies
  • TED Talks / YouTube
behaviourist technologies6
Behaviourist Technologies
  • Foursquare, Huffingtonpost
behaviourist technologies7
Behaviourist Technologies
  • Microquestgames (e.g., Robinson)
behaviourist technologies8
Behaviourist Technologies
  • The Future? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I3ih-sm6hxA
criticisms of behaviourism
Criticisms of Behaviourism
  • Grossly oversimplifies learning
  • Learning is not always tied to behaviours
  • Learning does not require rewards or punishments
  • The mind is not a black box
  • People adapt
drill time
Drill Time!
  • Tweet me another behaviourist technology and tell me why you feel it is behaviourist. Don’t forget #edit202!
cognitivism
Cognitivism
  • Emerged in the 1900s as a response to behaviourism: got big in the 50s/60s.
  • Key theorists: Piaget, Gagne, Vygotsky, Bruner
  • Beyond behaviour and into the “black box”
  • Memory systems are active, organized processors of information
  • Prior knowledge is key in learning
cognitivist motto
Cognitivist Motto
  • The mind is a computer.
cognitivism key ideas
Cognitivism - Key Ideas
  • Schema/scaffolding
  • Atkinson-Shiffrin Memory Model (Sensory/ST/LT Memory)
  • Working memory
  • Meaningful effect
  • Motivation
  • Seriality
cognitivism key ideas1
Cognitivism - Key Ideas
  • Practice for retention
  • Organization
  • Mneumonic devices
  • Metaphor / Symbolism
  • ”Memory palace”
  • Mental maps
  • Advance organizers
cognitive load theory
Cognitive Load Theory
  • Processing information can over or under load working memory.
  • Things must run smoothly in order for meaningful learning to occur.
  • Key Theorists: Miller, Sweller
  • Example: High falutin’ mumbo jumbo
  • Example: Learning in another language
  • Example: Overstimulation
cognitive load key ideas
Cognitive Load Key Ideas
  • Chunking
  • Learning structures
  • Instructional design
  • Means-ends analysis (inching closer)
  • Intrinsic load (difficulty)
  • Extraneous load (simplicity)
  • Germane load (schemas/connections)
  • Error / Fundamental Attribution Error
working memory
Working Memory
  • Working memory is the system which actively holds multiple pieces of transitory information in the mind when needed for verbal and nonverbal tasks such as reasoning and comprehension, and to make them available for further information processing.
  • Becker & Morris (1999)
  • It has replaced Atkinson & Shiffrin’s STM
cognitive load implications for edtech
Cognitive Load Implications for EdTech
  • What things look like matter
    • User Interface
    • HCI
    • General Aesthetic
  • How things are organized matter
    • Navigational structures
    • Layout of information
cognitivist technologies1
Cognitivist Technologies
  • Digital Concept Mapping
cognitivist technologies4
Cognitivist Technologies
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Learning theorists and computer scientists often work together in this area.
criticisms of cognitivism
Criticisms of Cognitivism
  • Ignores the affective and psychomotor
  • Too focused on knowledge; difficult to measure understanding and HOTS
  • The brain is not a computer
drill time1
Drill Time!
  • Tweet me an example of a web tool or site that has high extraneous load. Label it #edit202 AND #extraneousload
constructivsm
Constructivsm
  • Emerged in the early 1930s
  • Key Theorists: Dewey, Kolb, Montessori, Piaget, Bruner, Jonassen
  • The mind is a rhizome (network)
  • Teacher as facilitator
constructivism
Constructivism
  • Learning is building connections by actively interacting with the environment
  • begin with complex problems and teach basic skills while solving these problems
  • learning involves constructing one's own knowledge from one's own experiences
jonasson s definition
Jonasson’s Definition
  • “Learners construct their own reality or at least interpret it based upon their perceptions of experiences, so an individual's knowledge is a function of one's prior experiences, mental structures, and beliefs that are used to interpret objects and events.... What someone knows is grounded in perception of the physical and social experiences which are comprehended by the mind."
  • Jonasson, 1991
david jonasson
David Jonasson
  • Constructivism and Technology
  • Computers in the Classroom: Mindtools for Critical Thinking (1996)
  • http://web.missouri.edu/jonassend/
constructivism key ideas
Constructivism – Key Ideas
  • Problem-based learning
  • Project-based learning
  • Authentic tasks
  • Discovery learning
  • Case-based learning
  • Collaborative learning
  • Active learning (responsibility on learners)
  • Vygotsky’s Zone of proximal development
seymour papert
Seymour Papert
  • Constructionism
  • Learning is most effective when learners create tangible, real-world objects.
  • “Learning by making”
  • Mindstorms: Children, Computers, and Powerful Ideas (1980)
  • Father of Lego Robotics
  • http://www.papert.org/
merrill s assumptions of constructivism
Merrill’s Assumptions of Constructivism
  • Knowledge is constructed from experience
  • Learning is a personal interpretation of the world
  • Learning is an active process in which meaning is developed on the basis of experience
merrill s assumptions of constructivism1
Merrill’s Assumptions of Constructivism
  • Conceptual growth comes from the negotiation of meaning, the sharing of multiple perspectives and the changing of our internal representations through collaborative learning
  • Learning should be situated in realistic settings; testing should be integrated with the task and not a separate activity(Merrill, 1991, in Smorgansbord, 1997)
constructivist technologies1
Constructivist Technologies
  • Lego Robotics (Constructionist)
constructivist technologies2
Constructivist Technologies
  • Technology as tool: A means to an end
  • Google Sites
  • Wikispaces
  • PB Works
  • Blogger
  • Wordpress
  • Etc...
constructivist tech strategy
Constructivist Tech Strategy
  • WebquestsBernie Dodgewebquest.org
aside constructivist schools
Aside: Constructivist Schools
  • Quest 2 Learnhttp://q2l.org/
  • High Tech Highhttp://www.hightechhigh.org/
  • New Tech Highhttp://newtechhigh.org/
  • Edutopia Schools That Work
  • http://www.edutopia.org/schools-that-work
criticisms of constructivism
Criticisms of Constructivism
  • Time consuming
  • Subjective learning
  • Mature learners required
  • Difficult assessment
  • Impractical without prior knowledge
  • Lack of research / empirical evidence
an important note
An Important Note
  • Constructivism is COMPLEX!
  • You can take entire courses on it.
  • This is a very, very simplified version...
drill time2
Drill Time!
  • Tweet me an example of a good constructivist learning activity you can do in your major/minor area. Tag it #edit202 AND #constructivism
connectivism
Connectivism
  • Theory that has emerged since 2006
  • Learning is the process of creating connections and developing a network
  • Key theorists: George Siemens (http://www.connectivism.ca) and Stephen Downes
  • Key work: http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm
connectivism motto
Connectivism Motto
  • A learning theory for the digital age.
what is connectivism
What is Connectivism?
  • What is Learning to Me?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bVwxDzCTEa8
what is connectivism1
What is Connectivism?
  • “At its heart, connectivism is the thesis that knowledge is distributed across a network of connections, and therefore that learning consists of the ability to construct and traverse those networks…
what is connectivism2
What is Connectivism?
  • … It shares with some other theories a core proposition, that knowledge is not acquired, as though it were a thing… Knowledge is, on this theory, literally the set of connections formed by actions and experience.”
  • Stephen Downes
layperson definition
Layperson Definition
  • “Fast forward to today and connectivism is all the rage. In this digital era, we recognise that there’s simply too much knowledge to take in – and it changes too quickly anyway. So forget about trying to ‘know’everything; instead, build your network of knowledge sources, and access them whenever you need them.”
  • Ryan Traceyhttp://ryan2point0.wordpress.com/2009/03/17/instructivism-constructivism-or-connectivism/
the need for connectivism
The Need for Connectivism
  • A central tenet of most learning theories is that learning occurs inside a person. Even social constructivist views, which hold that learning is a socially enacted process, promotes the principality of the individual (and her/his physical presence – i.e. brain-based) in learning. These theories do not address learning that occurs outside of people (i.e. learning that is stored and manipulated by technology). They also fail to describe how learning happens within organizations
  • George Siemenshttp://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm
connectivism key principles
Connectivism – Key Principles
  • Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.
  • Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.
  • Learning may reside in non-human appliances.
  • Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known
  • Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.
  • Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.
connectivism key principles1
Connectivism – Key Principles
  • Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.
  • Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate affecting the decision.

George Siemenshttp://www.itdl.org/Journal/Jan_05/article01.htm

networks and nodes
Networks and Nodes
  • Networks are a set of connected notes.
  • Nodes are anything that can be connected to another node.
  • Nodes can include: people, information, data, feelings, images, etc...
  • Learning can exist outside of people
  • It is more important to “know-where” to find things in your network than to “know-how” or “know-what”
the network is the learning
The Network IS the Learning
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rpbkdeyFxZw
practicing what they preach
Practicing What They Preach…
  • MOOC!
  • http://cck11.mooc.ca/index.html
connectivist technologies1
Connectivist Technologies
  • Social Networking
connectivist technologies2
Connectivist Technologies
  • RSS Feeds and Newsreaders
connectivist technologies5
Connectivist Technologies
  • Any communication tool:
  • Email
  • Webcam
  • Chat
  • VC
  • Discussion forums
connectivist technologies6
Connectivist Technologies
  • Anywhere we can store data:
  • Databases
  • Intranets
  • Drives
  • WWW
  • Servers
criticisms of connectivism
Criticisms of Connectivism
  • Informal vs. formal learning
  • Is it really a new theory?
  • http://jennymackness.wordpress.com/2011/02/25/attacks-on-connectivism/
  • http://stranack.ca/2012/08/16/critical-review-of-connectivism-a-learning-theory-for-the-digital-age/
internal criticism
Internal Criticism
  • Downes: Socialization should not be a goal of education.
  • Siemens: Groups are networks.
drill time3
Drill Time!
  • Connectivism or Constructivism? Which one do you connect with more? Why? Tag it #edit202 and #cvsc
comparing the 4 models
Comparing The 4 Models
  • http://ci484-learning-technologies.wikispaces.com/Behaviorism,+Cognitivism,+Constructivism+%26+Connectivism
bccc 1
BCCC 1
  • Scenario: Learning Pythagorean Theorem
  • Behaviourist: Practice, practice, practice
  • Cognitivist: Connect to prior knowledge. Show how it works.
  • Constructivist: Give real life application situations where the PT can be applied.
  • Connectivist: Here are 5 links that show how, why and applications of PT.
bccc 2
BCCC 2
  • Scenario: Learning grammar rules
  • Behaviourist: Worksheets!
  • Cognitivist: Use mneumonics to remember rules. Practice in context.
  • Constructivist: Write stories, essays, etc... And correct grammar as you go.
  • Connectivist: Bookmark 5 good grammar sites and find a good grammar checking program.
drill time4
Drill Time
  • BCCC3: Tweet me a scenario to discuss. Tag it #edit202 AND #bccc
media ecology
Media Ecology
  • Technology influences society
  • Key theorists: Postman, McLuhan,
  • We are currently in the digital era.
  • The medium is the message.
  • Hot (low involvement) and cool (high involvement) media
what is media ecology
What is Media Ecology?
  • "the study of media environments, the idea that technology and techniques, modes of information and codes of communication play a leading role in human affairs.”
  • The Media Ecology Association
slide86
SCOT
  • Social Construction of Technology
  • Society and human action influence technology
  • Key theorists: Bijker, Pinch
  • Bicycle example
  • Symmetry
  • Closure