Educational Technology From 1980 through today
Educational Technology in the 1980’s • ---Growth and Redirection • Sensen Li
Growth: • Interest in Instructional Design • in Business, Industry, Military, International • areas • Influence of Instructional Design • in Public Schools & in Higher Education • 1983, more than ¼ Instructional Improvement • Centers were Disbanded
Why… • Ernest Burkman: • Business: driven by Interests • Military: relate to application • Public Schools(Non-profit-make) : • dispersed structure • slow information flow-rate • reluctant to accept others’ advice Efficiency
Interest in application of cognitive psychology Principles in ID • Actual Effects in this decade • Increasing Interest in microcomputers for Instructional purpose • Produce Computer-based Instruction • Develop new models of ID • Computer began to be used as tools to • automate some ID tasks
1983, Computers used for instructional purpose in more than 40% of all elementary schools, and more than 75% of all secondary schools in the U.S. • Why… • 1) Inexpensive 2) convenient 3)perform many functions performed by the large computers
In 1980, Robert Taylor of Teachers’ College, Columbia, placed computers uses in education into 3 categories: • ---Tutor: the computer acts like a human tutor • ---Tool: the computer aids in the performance of everyday work • ---Tutee: the computer “learns” what it is taught
Key Individuals: • Jean Piaget • description of children’s developmental stages & conviction that children develop intellectually through interaction with the environment • Jerome Bruner, the cognitive scientist, argued for active participation through discovery learning • The social learning theories of Albert Bandura and the rediscovered Lev Vygostsky led to new interest in the learning from and with others.
Summary of the 80’s • Bridge of 1970’s and 1990’s to present • Accumulation of Experience • Slow but Meaningful Growth
1990’sHighlights A broadening world of technology and theory
The Advancement of Technology • Multimedia PC’s are developed. • CAI and many other programs are available on CD-ROM’s. • 1991: the World Wide Web is developed at CERN by Tim Berners-Lee. History, History of Computers, and the History of Computers in Education. Retrieved 09/05/07, from http://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.html A Hypertext History of Instructional Design. Retrieved 09/05/07, from http://www.coe.uh.edu/courses/cuin6373/idhistory/1990.html
Advancement of Technology • 1994: Netscape Navigator web browser is created by Marc Andreessen and James H. Clark. • New graphics and multimedia are created for the internet. • Some schools are rewiring for Internet access.
High Hopes for Education • At the end of the 80’s people predict that the computer will revolutionize instructional practices. • Papert predicts that the computer is going to invoke “radical change in the educational system” and that the ratio of computer per student would be 1:1.
The Real Picture • By 1995, schools reported that they had a 1:9 computer to student ratio. • Although schools had a good deal of technology, it was not widely used. • If teachers did use computers in the classroom, it was for drill and practice or for teaching computer skills like word processing.
The Growth of Ed Tech • The growth in industry: • The Performance Technology Movement: caused more careful analysis of performance problems. • Electronic Performance Support Systems: computer-based systems designed to support workers in job tasks and to have access to work related information base.
Growth of Ed Tech • The growth in education: • Rapid Prototyping: process for developing inchoate design projects and then rapidly test them through tryout and revision cycles in order to ultimately create quality design materials with minimal time involved. • Distance Learning via the Internet.
Growth in Ed Tech • Growth in theory: Constructivism • Constructivism is a theory based on socially constructed concept of reality. • Adopting this view, technologists must change the entire approach to educational technology.
References: 1.) A Hypertext History of Instructional Design. Retrieved 09/05/07, from http://www.coe.uh.edu/courses/cuin6373/idhistory/1990.html 2.) History, History of Computers, and the History of Computers in Education. Retrieved 09/05/07, from http://www.csulb.edu/~murdock/histofcs.html 3.) History of Instructional Technology. Retrieved 09/05/07, from http://www.minich.com/education/psu/instruttech/week2/history.htm 4.) Rieser, R. A. (2001). A History of Instructional Design and Technology: Part II A History of Instructional Design. Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(2), 57-67. 5.) Dempsey, J.V. & Reiser, R.A. (2007). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology, 2nd Ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Education Inc.
Computer Use • K-12 Schools • Statistics • Influence of Interactivity • Distance Learning
Internet Influence • Online Courses • Course Management System
Educational Technology: 1980 - today Questions?